Reproductive Systems

Normal Processes

Embryonic development, fetal maturation, and perinatal changes

Organ structure and function

  • Female structure, including breast

  • Female function (eg, menstrual cycle, puberty, menopause)

  • Male structure

  • Male function (eg, spermatogenesis, puberty)

  • Intercourse, orgasm

  • Pregnancy, including labor and delivery, the puerperium, lactation, gestational uterus, placenta

Cell/tissue structure and function, including hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, sex steroids, and gestational hormones

Reproductive system defense mechanisms and normal flora

Abnormal processes

Infectious, inflammatory, and immunologic disorders (eg, toxic shock syndrome, breast abscess, orchitis, sexually transmitted diseases, autoimmune hypogonadism, cystic mastitis)

Traumatic and mechanical disorders (eg, female incontinence, torsion of testis, varicocele)

Neoplastic disorders (eg, female reproductive, male reproductive, breast [including fibrocystic changes], trophoblastic disease)

Metabolic and regulatory processes

Female (eg, anovulation, infertility, polycystic ovaries, endometriosis, orgasmic dysfunction, delayed and premature puberty)

  • menopausal syndrome

Male (eg, infertility, impotence, gynecomastia, delayed and premature puberty)

  • Benign prostatic hyperplasia

Systemic disorders affecting reproductive function (eg, obesity, myotonic dystrophy, cirrhosis, renal failure)

Disorders relating to pregnancy, the puerperium, and the postpartum period

  • Obstetric problems (eg, ectopic pregnancy, third-trimester bleeding)

  • Complications affecting other organ systems (eg, eclampsia, gestational diabetes, thyroid disorders)

  • Disorders associated with the puerperium (eg, postpartum hemorrhage, sepsis, depression)

  • Antepartum, intrapartum, postpartum disorders of the fetus (eg, prematurity, postmaturity, cord compression, macrosomia)

Principles of Therapeutics

Mechanisms of action, use, and adverse effects of drugs for treatment of disorders of the reproductive system and management of normal reproductive function

Female reproductive tract

  • Fertility drugs

  • Oral contraception, other methods of contraception (eg, condoms)

  • Estrogen, progestogen replacement, treatment of menopause

  • Stimulants and inhibitors of labor

  • Estrogen and progesterone antagonists

  • Stimulators and inhibitors of lactation

Male reproductive tract

  • Fertility drugs

  • Androgen replacement and antagonists

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone and gonadotropin replacementAbortifacientsAntimicrobialsAntineoplasticsRestoration of potency

Other therapeutic modalities affecting the reproductive system (eg, tampons, anabolic steroids)

Patterns Affecting Treatment

Gender, ethnic, and behavioral considerations affecting disease treatment and prevention, including psychosocial, cultural, occupational, and environmental

  • Emotional and behavioral factors (eg, sexually transmitted diseases)

  • Influence on person, family, and society (eg, infertility)

  • Occupational and other environmental risk factors (eg, radiation)

  • Family planning and pregnancy (eg, unwanted)

  • Gender identity, sexual orientation, sexuality, libido

  • Effects of traumatic stress syndrome, violence, rape, child abuse