Respiratory Systems

Normal Processes

Embryonic development, fetal maturation, and perinatal changes

Cell/tissue structure and function, including surfactant formation, alveolar structure

Repair, regeneration, and changes associated with stage of life

Pulmonary defense mechanisms and normal flora

Organ structure and function

  • Airways, including mechanics and regulation of breathing

  • Lung parenchyma, including ventilation, perfusion, gas exchange

  • Pleura

  • Nasopharyx and sinuses

Abnormal processes

Infectious, inflammatory, and immunologic disorders

Infectious diseases

  • Infectious diseases of the upper respiratory tract (eg, sinusitis, pharyngitis)

  • Acute infectious diseases of the lower respiratory tract and pleura and their complications (eg, pneumonia, bronchiectasis, abscess, empyema)

  • Chronic infectious diseases of the lower respiratory tract (eg, Mycobacterium, endemic fungal infections, Nocardia/Actinomyces)

Immunologic disorders

  • Allergic and hypersensitivity disorders (eg, asthma)

  • Autoimmune disorders (eg, Wegener granulomatosis, Goodpasture syndrome)

Inflammatory disorders

  • Pneumoconiosis

  • Acute and chronic alveolar injury (eg, acute respiratory distress syndrome, chlorine gas/smoke inhalation)

  • Obstructive pulmonary disease

  • Restrictive pulmonary disease (eg, sarcoidosis, idiopathic fibrosis)

Traumatic and mechanical disorders (eg, foreign body aspiration, pneumothorax, atelectasis, sleep apnea)

Neoplastic disorders (eg, polyps, bronchogenic carcinoma, mesothelioma, metastatic tumors)

Metabolic, regulatory, and structural disorders (eg, hypoventilation, disorders of gas exchange, ventilation-perfusion imbalance, neonatal respiratory distress syndrome)

Vascular and circulatory disorders (eg, thromboembolic disease, pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary edema, pleural effusion)

Systemic disorders affecting the respiratory system

Principles of Therapeutics

  • Mechanisms of action, use, and adverse effects of drugs for treatment of disorders of the respiratory system (eg, decongestants, cough suppressants, expectorants, mucolytics; bronchodilator drugs; anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic drugs; antimicrobial agents; antineoplastic agents)

  • Other therapeutic modalities (eg, oxygen therapy, nasal CPAP, mechanical ventilation, physical therapy, surgical procedures, including transplantation)

Patterns Affecting Treatment

Gender, ethnic, and behavioral considerations affecting disease treatment and prevention, including psychosocial, cultural, occupational, and environmental

  • Emotional and behavioral factors (eg, smoking, substance abuse, pets, and allergies)

  • Influence on person, family, and society (eg, tuberculosis, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, school issues, protective parents, family smoking)

  • Occupational and other environmental risk factors

  • Gender and ethnic factors (eg, sarcoidosis, lung cancer)