ACT Essay: Proper Manpower Planning: A Must For Development
The third world countries are exposed to the process of change operating at the national and local level simultaneously, extending and expending both geographically and socially, affecting both the form and functions of groups and organizations, and evolving new patterns of living and thinking. The ruling elites of these countries are influenced by the liberal or revolutionary philosophies of the West either of their earlier colonial masters or of their allies in their battle against Imperialism. They have been equally impressed by the industrial strength of the West supporting its production machine. Leadership of the third world countries is therefore endeavoring in every way to introduce change on this pattern and to strengthen its process-the process of development. For its leadership development therefore is a recurring theme and a common idiom in the vocabulary.
Development, basically, is change with a predetermined direction affecting various segments of the society. Politically it expresses faith in individual development in the context of liberal or collectivist philosophy as adopted by the governing elites. It also encourages individuals'conscious participation in its decision-making and decision implementing process. Economically it aims at increasing goods and services and increasingly putting economic efficiency cost-benefit relationship and follows growth indicators of GNR Administratively it works for functional specialization amongst its operating organizational structures and tries to support it by the concept of professionalism. Collectively it makes the whole process communitarian with increasing social mobility and with natural mobilization of community associations makes the whole process participative and pervading stable and enduring.
On the eve of independence day as a third world country was stuck down in her efforts of development with low capital formation, low per capita income, low literacy rate including low functional literacy and low level of production organization; but with very high population growth, high unemployment and under employment mark.
Planning has not been new to Indian leadership and in administration a department of planning was constituted even before independence. After independence, full fledged planning machinery was envisaged in the establishment of Planning Commission at the Centre with Prime Minister as its Chairman. It works on a comprehensive data, collected, compiled and classified on different indices of development and provides rationale for plan targets and justification for plan implementation The National Development Council provides political dimension to the process of planning and makes it more responsive and therefore more adoptive. Member States also have similar machinery and their plans are discussed and finalized within the broad frame work prepared by the planning Commission.
The Prime objective of planned development is naturally economic growth-increasing the production of goods and services and increasing levels of individual consumption. To sustain this process, the economy equally needs increasing levels of capital formation. India adopted planning strategy with a positive role for public sector to realize the goal.
Human resources are an important variable in the overall efforts of development. Human beings are ends and means at one and the same time and give meaning and justification to the whole gamut of activities. The objectives of five year plans therefore lay emphasis on policies of employment creating job, opportunities as well as modernizing production processes for higher per labor output. The plans also aim at increasing general literacy and functional literacy by providing facilities for acquiring technical skills. This is in addition to literacy drives. Basically committed to social justice, the plan programs take special care of backward classes and disadvantaged and unorganized groups of the population and draw them into the main stream of development. Various poverty eradication progress like the National Rural Employment program NREP Plan, the integrated Rural Development Program IRDP 6th Plan, Rural landless Employment Guarantee Program BLEGP 5th plan, The Jawahar Yojana 7th Plan, Development of women and children in Rural areas DWCRA 7th Plan, The National Scheme of Training of Rural Youth for Self Employment TRYSEM, 6th Plan, Rural Training and Technology Centre RTTC 7th Plan, collectively strengthen functional skills of working population and aim to make production efficient. Population adequate qualified is an asset, a productive as set.
Population of developing countries has always been growing and growing at a faster rate. This complicates the problem of development and the problem of balanced development. In these countries political revolution has preceded industrial revolution. Socialist revolution has increase anticipation from the people. But Government machinery in these countries is underdeveloped and ill-equipped to tackle the problem of development with social justice in India today support: Nearly 15 p. c. Of the world population, its population has been steadily increasing and the decadal growth rate has therefore been consistently rising.
Population has functional and dysfunctions effects. Healthy and better equipped population can support industrial growth while poor population would make country poorer. Application of Malthusian law is ruled out and a positive strategy would be a the adoption of family welfare programs b implementation of manpower planning c the diversification of productive activities in the secondary and tertiary sectors.
Family welfare programs envisage a ne production rate of 1 p. c. By 2000 A. D. In demographic transition; high growth in the second stage, but the third stage is characterized by lo birth rate, low death rate, small size families a leading to decline in the rate of population growth In rural areas primary health centers provide host of services under one roof. A massive nutrition programs with awareness of community health is operated through governmental and nor governmental agencies. The special Nutrition Program caters children between 0 − 6 years an pregnant women and nursing mothers.
In manpower planning emphasis on investment in human capital is aimed at. This is realized through health and educational Program operated in rural urban areas. This will improve adaptability, productivity and mobility of labor. The 8th plan aimed at universalization of elementary education and eradication of illiteracy in working age population. There was an extension of ‘Open Learning System’ Schemes like DWCRA, TRYSEM, RELEGP, CRTTC, NERP have a positive role to play in this field as rural unemployment, underemployment, disguised unemployment is its main target. The 8th Plan expected employment growth rate to reach 3 p. c.
Diversification of secondary and tertiary activities has been aimed at from the Second Five Year Plan. Within the frame work of mixed Economy the plans give priority to public sector, activities which aim to create infrastructure for development. In 1951, there were only 5 non-departmental public enterprises with an investment of Rs. 29 crores. By 1983 − 84 the number of public enterprises central has gone to 228 with a total investment of Rs. 42.000 crores. Khadi and village industries also occupy a vital place in the process of industrialization and growth with balance. With a total investment of Rs. 2000 crores in the 7th plan it provided employment to nearly 50 lakh people.
Development is a multifarious phenomenon and population policy. One of its variable. Proper manpower-planning would definitely make the available human capital more productive and would help to reduce its pressure on future growth. Properly linked with the strategy of industrialization and modernization, population policy would open this vast potential growth resource available to the third world countries extending the reach out of development benefits and making its face more human.