Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic Cells YouTube Lecture Handouts

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Prokaryotic Cell: Shape, Structure, Gram Positive & Gram Negative Bacteria

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Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic Cells

23 Differences

Eukaryotic Cell versus Prokaryotic Cell comparison chart

Eukaryotic Cell

Prokaryotic Cell

Nucleus

Present

Absent

Number of chromosomes

More than one

One--but not true chromosome: Plasmids

Cell Type

Usually multicellular

Usually unicellular (some cyanobacteria may be multicellular)

True Membrane bound Nucleus

Present

Absent

Example

Animals and Plants

Bacteria

Genetic Recombination

Meiosis and fusion of gametes

Partial, undirectional transfers DNA

Lysosomes and peroxisomes

Present

Absent

Microtubules

Present

Absent or rare

Endoplasmic reticulum

Present

Absent

Mitochondria

Present

Absent

Cytoskeleton

Present

May be absent

DNA wrapping on proteins.

Eukaryotes wrap their DNA around proteins called histones.

Multiple proteins act together to fold and condense prokaryotic DNA. Folded DNA is then organized into a variety of conformations that are supercoiled and wound around tetramers of the HU protein.

Ribosomes

larger

smaller

Vesicles

Present

Present

Golgi apparatus

Present

Absent

Chloroplasts

Present (in plants)

Absent; chlorophyll scattered in the cytoplasm

Flagella

Microscopic in size; membrane bound; usually arranged as nine doublets surrounding two singlets

Submicroscopic in size, composed of only one fiber

Permeability of Nuclear Membrane

Selective

not present

Plasma membrane with steroid

Yes

Usually no

Cell wall

Only in plant cells and fungi (chemically simpler)

Usually chemically complexed

Vacuoles

Present

Present

Cell size

10-100um

1-10um