AIIMS: Revision Terminology Part 14

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Stomata

  1. Apple & Mulberry type – only on lower side – Walnut, Oak, Peech.

  2. Potato type – more on lower side – most plants

  3. Oat type – equal on both side – maize, oat.

  4. Water lily – Only upper surface - lotus

  5. Potamogeton type – inactive – in submerged plants.

Ground Tissue System

(i) Extrastelar – Hypodermis, cortex, endodermis

(ii)Intrastelar, pericycle, medullary rays, medulla

Primary Structure of Dicot Stem

  1. Epidermis – outermost, maintain shape, impermeable to liquid & gases, prevent water loss, multicellular hairs.

  2. Cortex – of parenchyma, protective, support, storage.

  3. Hypodermis – multilayered, mechanical support

  4. General cortex – Parenchyma, mechanical support

  5. Endodermis - innermost

  6. Vascular tissue – from procambium – centrifugally end arch open, Collateral arranged in ring, Intrafasicular Cambium between xylem & phloem

  7. Pith – parenchymatous, Central, Medullary rays – storage & conduction

  8. Primary Structure of monocot stem – no cambium (closed VB)Scattered, no difference of pith & cortex Epidermis Hypodermis (Thick wall, Lignified, Sclerenchymatous)

  9. Each Vascular Bundle is surrounded by Bundle sheath (Sclernchymatous)

  10. Conjoint, Collateral, end arch, (In Triticum – pith cavity present)

  11. Secondary Growth

  12. Cambium between xylem & Phloem = Intrafasicular Cambium

  13. Parenchymatous cell between Vascular Bundle – meristamatic -> Interfasicular Cambium

  14. (1) & (2) from vascular cambium

  15. Fusiform initial – Narrow, elongated

  16. Secondary phloem – outer

  17. Secondary xylem – inner

  18. Ray initial – Spherical, parenchymatous.

  19. Monocot leaf – motor or bulliform cells – Rolling of leaves in dry weather

  20. Roots of epiphytes & aquatic plants may contain chloroplasts

  21. Stele dicot stem = Eustele

  22. Monocot dicot stem = Atactostele

  23. Protoxylem lacuna = schizo-lysogenous cavity

  24. Pith cavity – Ricinus in dicots.

  25. Root – endodermis -> Casparian strips (barrage) -> Prevent leakage of nutrients -> passage cells – allow radial diffuser of water

  26. Dicot root = 3 – 6 strands – exarch

  27. Monocot root – polyarch = exarch

  28. Lateral roots arise from pericycle – inner layer of parenchyma – endogenous.

  29. Xylem – bulk of root after secondary growth

  30. Rounded Cork cell in lenticel = complementary cells (have inter cellular space & allow diffusion)

  31. Wood = secondary xylem formed by Vascular Bundle cambium during secondary growth

  32. Wood angiosperm – vessel present – porous, hardwood

  33. Gymnosperm – no vessel – non porous, soft wood

  34. Roots annual rings not well marked due to uniform temperature (except willow).

  35. Wood can be Heartwood – deal, dark, more durable, resistant to microorganisms – Extractive or Sapwood – peripheral, wetter, light, water conducting

  36. In Wounds callus forms the proturberance producing knots.

  37. W. Dudgeon initiated ecology in India (father of India ecology = R. Misra)

  38. Development of a communing related to set of condition = sere -> last = climare

  39. Plant growing in savanna = psilophytes.

  40. Plants growing in desert/stepper = Eremophytes.

  41. Succulents (drought avoiding)

  42. Stem – opumitia, Euphorbia, E.Splendens, E.Tirucalli, areus.

  43. Leaf – aloe, agave, Begonia, Bryophyllum.

  44. Root – Asparagus, ceiba parviflora

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