AIIMS: Revision Terminology Part 53

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Urine

  1. Glomerulor filtration – passive

  2. Selective reabsorption – active + diffusion

  3. Tubular secretion DCT & collecting tube – active only

  4. Glomerular filtrate & plama proteins are similar except it does not have protein & fat.

  5. PCT – active transport – 75% absorbed (glucose, AA, vitamin C, Ca2+, K+, Na+).

  6. A- = passive

  7. Descending limb of loop of Henle – reabsorbed due to Osmolality – impermeable to ions.

  8. Ascending limb of loop of Henle – Impermeable to water (active second of Na+, K+, Cl-)

  9. High threshold substance – substance which are actively absorbed by blood eg. Glucose.

  10. Non-threshold substance – Creatinine, Hoppuric acid.

  11. Na+ Pass out passively.

  12. Fruits – increment acidity.

  13. Vegetable – increment alkalinity

  14. Counter current exchange – Vasa Recta.

  15. Counter current exchange – Loop of Henle.

  16. Angiotensinogen -> Angiotensin -> Stimulate aldestrore to increment reabsorption of Na+ in nephrons - Kidney.

  17. Rennin – digestion of milk proteins – stomach.

  18. ADH => Diabets insidipus – urine tasteless, watery & excess.

  • Medulla Cortex

  • Cortex Medulla

  • Nephrology – Kidnegs.

  • Urology – Urinary tract.

  • Diucetice - urine – disod. Citrate, glucose, caffien, tea, beverages.

  • Archinephros – larva of Hagfish.

  • Pronephros – Cyclostomates, Bony fish, embryo, of fish & amphibian.

  • Mesonephros – anaminotes – fisher & Amphibians.

  • Glucose C2H5oH + Co2 alcoholic fermentation

  • Glucose Lactic acid lactic acid fermentation.

  • Photosynthesis – anabolic, endergonic, chloroplast.

  • Respiration – catabolic, Cytoplasma, matrix, exergonic.

  • Book lung – Scorpion, spider.

  • Labeo fish – 4 pair of gills.

  • Book gills – Limulus.

  • Internal gills – Prawn, unio, pila, fish, tadpole of frog.

  • Resp region of nasal chamber – pseudostratified columnar epithelium.

  • False vocal cord – outer, no sound.

  • True vocal cord – inner, sound prod – greater the tension – higher pitch.

  • Alveoli – sqvamous epithelium miniature lung.

  • Pharynx – stratified squamous ep.

  • Larynx – ciliated columnar ep.

  • Inspiration – active – diaphragm flat, sternum up & out, Diaphagm & intercosostal mres.

  • Expiration – passive – diaph ragm conven, sternum down & relax, abdominal & intercosostal mres muscle.

  • Mammals have negative breathing pr – allow to eat & breath simultarresusly.

  • Gas diffuses high -> Low conc.

  • RQ =

Oxygen -3 % plasma and 97% oxyhaemoglobin.

CO2 - 7% dissolved gas and 70% Bicarbonate

  • 23% Hb & plasma protein

  • High Po2 & low Pco2 take oxygen in lungs.

  • High tension of oxygen favour formation of oxyhaemoglobin for muscle hyper – bood.

  • Inspection Center – M.D dorsal.

  • Expression Center– mo. ventral + vague.

  • Pneumotaxic Center – pone varoli dorsal

  • Laryngitis – disturb vibration of vocal cord & speaking.

  • Co2, pH -> acidisis.

  • Decompressor sickness = Bends = Caison disease = Diver paralysis => N2 in seq. water.