Expected Questions for AIIMS GK 2018 Part 2 (Set 1) (Download PDF)

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MedWatch - Indian Air Force launched an innovative mobile health App named ‘MedWatch’, Comprises host of features that will provide authentic health information to all IAF personnel.

  • It acts as a reminder for timely immunization for the children of all Air Warriors, enabling ‘Mission Indradhanush’ program.

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Expected Questions for General Knowledge Section AIIMS 2018 - Part 2

Dr. Jain discusses Expected Questions for General Knowledge Section AIIMS 2018 - Part 2

Nano Capsules as Drug Carriers

  • Scientists developed Nano capsules that are bio - degradable and capable of delivering a potent drug into a tumor.

  • Nano medicine involves use of nanoscale materials for diagnosis, delivery, sensing or actuation purposes on living organisms.

  • It helps in efficient management of various infectious and tumor diseases, where immunity-stimulation is a leading factor for the treatment.

CARB - X and Antibiotic Resistance

  • Bengaluru firm become India’s first to receive international Combating Antibiotic Resistant Biopharmaceutical Accelerator (CARB - X) grant to develop antibiotics to treat hospital - acquired infections.

  • ARB-X, or Combating Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria Biopharmaceutical Accelerator, is a public - private international partnership.

  • Bacteria classified as Gram - positive and Gram - negative, based on a structural difference in their cell walls.

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Prokaryotic Cell: Shape, Structure, Gram Positive & Gram Negative Bacteria

Dr. Manishika Jain in this lesson explains Prokaryotic Cell, its shape, Structure and the differences between the Gram Positive & Gram Negative Bacteria.

  • Gram - negative bacteria are responsible for 20 to 25 % of infections.

Impacts and Benefits of Artificial Intelligence

  • Role of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in uniting goals of development and public prosperity.

  • Artificial Intelligence also known as AI, is the ability of machines like computers to perform functions that normally require human intelligence.

  • AI is the ability of software to develop and apply intelligence like humans.

  • Surveys indicate that technologies related to AI will kill from a third to a half of all jobs within a decade.

Fast Breeder Reactors Now In Indian Power Plants

  • Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR) carrying out a R&D on sodium cooled fast breeder reactor technology for the past 30 years.

  • A test Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR), is in operation from 1985 onwards which has provided valuable feedback.

  • Based on this 500MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is now in advanced stage of commissioning at Kalpakkam.

  • Designed peer reviewed by international design agencies.

  • India mastered the design and manufacturing of sodium cooled Fast Breeder Reactors (FBR).

Flexible and Strong Artificial Silk Developed

  • Scientists from the University of Cambridge developed super-stretchy and strong artificial (synthetic) spider silk, almost entirely composed of water.

  • The synthetic spider silk mimics properties of spider silk, one of strongest natural materials.

  • It has range of applications from eco-friendly textiles to sensors.

  • Spun from hydrogel a soupy material 98 % water.

  • Remaining 2 % composed from silica and cellulose

India’s First Solar Storage Power Plant at Andaman

  • First city-scale battery Solar Storage Power Plant of India is going to be setup at Andaman- well known for its fabulous beaches.

  • NTPC, the largest power generation utility of India will construct two solar storage plants with total 25 MW (megawatt) capacity at Port Blair for tourism development.

  • The storage solar power plant will provide floating capacity to limit liquid gas generators to the less-polluting fuel.

  • Core business of NTPC is generation and sale of electricity to state-owned power supply companies and State Electricity Boards in India.

Urja Ganga Launched in Varanasi

  • Urja Ganga, the highly ambitious gas pipeline project in Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh.

  • He also launched other schemes worth of Rs. 5000 crore in his Lok Sabha constituency.

  • Gas pipeline would provide piped cooking fuel to residents of the eastern region and CNG gas for the vehicles.

  • Seven East India cities will benefit greatly: Varanasi, Jamshedpur, Patna, Ranchi, Kolkata, Bhubaneswar & Cuttack.

NSDC & Google India Launches Mobile App Development Program

  • National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC) and Google India jointly launched Android Skill Development program for improving mobile developer ecosystem.

  • NSDC’s partners will design and deliver 100-hour course outside the formal education system.

  • Objectives of Scheme

    • Aims to impart mobile development training on android OS and web platform

    • Improve the quality of mobile app development ecosystem in India.

    • Introduce specific courses on creating applications for the mobile platform for Android OS smartphones and tablets.

NASA Recorded High - Intensity Solar Flare

  • Recently, NASA recorded two high - intensity solar flares.

  • Solar flare is a sudden flash of increased Sun’s brightness, generally observed near its surface.

  • Flares are often, but not always, accompanied by a coronal mass ejection.

These radiation flares can disrupt communication satellites, GPS and power grids by reaching the upper earth atmosphere.

Scientists Have Found a Way to Produce Methanol Using Oxygen in the Air

  • Researchers from Cardiff University in U. K. discovered process to produce methanol from methane through simple catalysis.

  • That allows methanol production at low temperatures using oxygen and hydrogen peroxide.

  • Methanol is also known as methyl alcohol. It is a chemical with formula CH3OH (often abbreviated MeOH).

  • Cleaner, greener industrial processes worldwide.

The Mysterious Windy Venus is Revealed for the First Time

  • For the first time, the night side of the Venus is observed and how the atmosphere circulates on the night side of Venus on a global scale.

  • Primarily focus on night side because it has remained poorly explored.

  • Visible and Infrared Thermal Imaging Spectrometer (VIRTIS) on European Space Agency (ESA) ’s Venus Express spacecraft was used to observe the clouds in the infrared.

  • There is wind and cloud patterns in the night side of planet Venus.

  • Behave very differently from the part facing the Sun.

  • For the first time, night side of Venus observed and how the atmosphere circulates on the night side of Venus on a global scale.

  • There is wind and cloud patterns in the night side of planet Venus and behave very differently from the part facing the Sun.

Al System Can Predict Alzheimer’s

  • News is regarding the development of an artificial intelligence system.

  • That can accurately identify signs of Alzheimer’s disease almost 10 years before the clinical symptoms appear.

  • Researchers developed a machine-learning algorithm to discern structural changes in the brain caused by Alzheimer’s disease.

  • Idea was to teach the algorithm to correctly classify and discriminate between diseased and healthy brains.

  • System distinguished between healthy brain and one with Alzheimer’s with an accuracy of 86%.

New DNA Test to Screen a Child for 193 Genetic Diseases

  • Simple DNA screening test called Sema4 Natalis to detect 193 childhood-onset diseases.

  • It’s including epilepsy, spinal muscular atrophy and cancer was developed by a US-based genomic testing company.

  • Test could be performed at home with a gentle cheek swab to allow parents to gain early insight into their baby’s health.

  • Sema4 Natalis screens for over five times the number of genetic diseases than a standard hospital test and would be used as a supplement test.

  • Sema4 Natalis uses advanced DNA sequencing to analyze a baby’s genes.

Cancer Research: System to Predict Treatment Outcome of Chemotherapy

  • Scientists developed a new system to non-invasively identify the breast cancer patients who would respond to chemotherapy within two weeks of beginning treatment.

  • The novel dynamic “optical tomographic breast imaging system” generates three-dimensional (3-D) images of both breasts simultaneously.

  • Chemotherapy is a type of cancer treatment using one or more anti-cancer drugs given as curative intent, prolong life or reduce symptoms.

  • Chemotherapy drugs kill cancer cells, but they also affect the vasculature inside the tumor.

Plastic Converted to Petrol and Bio-Glue for Wound Healing

  • CSIR-Indian Institute of Petroleum (IIP), Dehradun in collaboration with GAIL Ltd. developed a process to convert waste polyethylene and polypropylene into petrol and diesel.

  • One kilogram of waste polyethylene and polypropylene can be converted to either about 600 - 650 ml of petrol or 700 - 750 ml of diesel along with LPG.

  • The process has been developed at the bench scale.

  • Scientists developed a super strong, flexible bio-glue for wound healing without causing toxicity.

  • Inspired by an adhesive material (glue) secreted by slugs when threatened, making it difficult for a predator to pry it off its surface.

What Happens During Solar Minimum? Sun May Become 7 % Cooler by 2050

  • Scientists based on 20 years of observations and data, calculated that sun will be nearly 7 % cooler and dimmer by 2050 causing a mini ice age, said the team of researchers from San Diego.

  • Physicist Dan Lubin lead the study has revealed his observations.

  • The sun moves through an 11-year-cycle where it experiences active and quiet periods, known as the solar maximum and solar minimum.

  • Sun may soon experience its ‘grand minimum’ phase and become unusually cool by 2050.

  • In this state UV radiation diminishes 7 % beyond the lowest point of its cycle.

  • ‘Grand minimum, ’ echoes conditions experienced in Europe in the mid-17th century.

TRAPPIST-1 May Have Water-Rich Planets

  • Planets around the faint red star TRAPPIST-1, 40 light-years from Earth, may host significant amounts of water.

  • Shifts of TRAPPIST-1 planets depend on the planets masses, their distances, and other orbital parameters.

  • Scientists at University of Bern led by Simon Grimm in Switzerland applied complex computer modelling methods to all the available data to determine that the planet densities with better precision.

  • Based on these densities the conclusion of water on planets was drawn.

  • TRAPPIST-1 planets are so close together that they interfere with each other gravitationally, so the times when they pass in front of the star shift slightly.

Gelator to Remove Oil from Spills: IISER

  • Scientists from the Indian Institute of Science, Education and Research (IISER), Thiruvananthapuram developed hydrophobic and oleilophilic gelator that can take up oil on contact.

  • It is a cost effective method to recover marine oil spills.

  • Gelators use glucose as a starting material

  • Gelators are produced through several chemical reactions.

  • IISER gelator can recover oil from oil-water mixture and be reused several times except in case of crude.

What Are Sprites (Spacecraft) and Breakthrough Starshot?

  • Breakthrough Starshot is a research and engineering project by Breakthrough Initiatives to develop a proof-of-concept fleet of light sail spacecraft, named StarChip.

  • They are capable of making journey to the Alpha Centauri star system, 4.37 light-years away, at speeds between 15 % and 20 % of the speed of light.

  • The small spacecraft in general are called sprites.

  • Sprite is a tiny (3.5 by 3.5 centimeter) single-board spacecraft with microcontroller, radio, and solar cells capable of carrying single-chip sensors, such as thermometers, magnetometers, gyroscopes, and accelerometers.

  • Breakthrough Initiatives, announced by Yuri Milner and Stephen Hawking to develop and launch practical interstellar space missions.

Ocean Observation Systems

  • Ministry of Earth Sciences implements Ocean Observations System programs since 1996 to acquire real-time, time series data on surface meteorological and upper oceanographic parameters from the Indian seas including from the Indian Ocean Region.

  • Ocean observation systems acquire specific ocean parameters on different spatial and temporal scales.

  • All the systems except Tide gauges and coastal Radar are deployed in the EEZ of India.

  • The equipment is of two types - drifters and moored.

Opportunity Rover Mark Evidence of Ancient Lake on Mars

  • Opportunity Mars rover of NASA found the edge of a crater on the red planet which could be lake of liquid water.

  • It has founded rocks at the edge of Endeavour Crater which were either transported by a flood or by wind.

  • The Opportunity rover has observed these features nearer to the crater rim’s crest above Perseverance Valley, which is located into the inner slope of the rim.

  • Since 2011, the Opportunity mission is examining the sites on and near the western rim of Endeavour Crater.

  • The science team is considering all the possible explanations to conclude that how the slope might have changed.

Government’s 2030 Vision for EVs is Huge Challenge

  • Meeting the government’s vision of 100 % electrification of public transport and 40 % of personal mobility by 2030 is a huge challenge.

  • It is expected that Indian passenger vehicles market would touch around 10 million units annually by 2026, around 20% (2 million) could be EVs, and the rest ICE, with a good portion hybridized.

Why are Incentives Required for EVs? To make EVs attractive (for buyers) to spend more for possibly a small car, which is probably less aspirational in its appearance or in its segment that the same money on a hybridised larger car.

School of International Biodesign Develops SOHUM: Indigenous Low-Cost Hearing Screening Device

  • School of International Bio design (SIB) startup Sohum Innovation Labs India Pvt. Ltd. developed SOHUM, an indigenously developed low-cost hearing screening device for newborns.

  • Sohum aims: To make this battery-operated non-invasive screening device available across India to minimize or reverse the hearing loss damage.

  • Features of SOHUM:

    • Battery-operated non-invasive screening device to minimize or reverse the hearing loss damage.

    • Uses brain-stem auditory evoked response for hearing screening choice.

    • Built-in algorithm filters out ambient noise from the test signal.

3D Printing- 3D-Printed Soft Silicone Heart

  • Scientists from ETH Zurich in Switzerland developed a 3D-printed soft silicone heartresembling and functioning like human organ.

  • Not exact replica but can still save lives and serve as an artificial heart while waiting for heart transplant.

  • 3D-printed soft artificial heart a silicone monoblock with complex inner structure.

  • Weighs 390 grams and has a volume of 679 cubic centimeters.

  • Made of silicone using a 3D printed mold most advanced replicas created of most important organs.

  • Chamber is inflated and deflated by pressurized air required to pump fluid from the blood chambers.

  • Present can only work for several thousand beats, lasting around 30 to 45 minutes.

SpaceX Launches Powerful Falcon Heavy Rocket for the First Time

  • SpaceX’s Falcon Heavy rocket took off from NASA’s Kennedy Space Center carrying its payload red Tesla Roadster into orbit finally landing into the ocean.

  • Two of the Falcon Heavy’s rocket cores successfully touched down back on Earth after takeoff.

  • Two outer boosters broke away mid-flight and returned to the Cape, touching down around 1, 000 feet from one another on Space X’s concrete landing pads.

  • SpaceX has now landed 23 rockets upright.

  • Falcon Heavy has the force of eighteen 747 jetliners.

  • Elon Musk is the CEO of SpaceX.

GOLD and ICON of NASA to Explore the Ionosphere

  • NASA announced two missions to explore the little-understood area of 96 km above Earth’s surface called Ionosphere.

  • Two missions are complementary to each other.

    • ICON will be in low-Earth orbit, at 560 km above Earth, like a close-up camera.

    • GOLD will be in a geostationary orbit over the Western Hemisphere, about 35, 398 km above the planet’s surface.

  • Ionosphere is the ionized part of Earth’s upper atmosphere, from about 60 km to 1, 000 km altitude.

  • A region that includes the thermosphere and parts of the mesosphere and exosphere.

Pratyush, India’s Fastest Supercomputer Unveiled

  • India’s fastest and first multi-petaflops (PF) supercomputer named Pratyush was unveiled at Pune-based Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM).

  • The supercomputer has been named as ‘Pratyush’ meaning Sun.

  • One petaflop is a million billion floating point operations per second and is a reflection of the computing capacity of a system.

  • Machines will be installed at two government institutes:

    • 4.0 petaflops HPC facility at IITM, Pune

    • 2.8 petaflops facility at the National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast, Noida.

New Fossil Breaks Assumptions on How Human Race Spread- Oldest Known Human Fossil Outside Africa

  • Discovery of prehistoric jawbone in a cave in Israel and tools suggest that human ancestors left Africa far earlier than previously thought prompting scientists to rethink theories of how the earliest human pioneers came to populate the planet.

  • A series of recent discoveries, including a trove of 1, 00, 000 years-old human teeth found in a cave in China.

  • It have clouded straight forward assumption of humans dispersing from Africa into Eurasia:

    • Human fossils in Sumatra from about 70, 000 years ago

    • Archaeological evidence from Northern Australia at 65, 000 years

    • Latest find, at the Misliya cave site in northern Israel added to the conflict.

CancerSEEK- Detection of Surgically Resectable Cancers with a Multi-Analyte Blood Test

  • A new blood test that can now detect eight common cancer types through assessment of the levels of circulating proteins and mutations in cell-free DNA.

  • Cancer SEEK is the name of the blood test, which is used to detect the eight types of cancers in the early stage.

  • Tests were positive in a median of 70 % for the eight cancer types.

  • Sensitivities ranged from 69 % to 98 % for the detection of five cancer types (ovary, liver, stomach, pancreas, and esophagus).

  • CancerSEEK localized the cancer to a small number of anatomic sites in a median of 83 % of the patients.

What is Super Blue Moon? Observed on January 31 to Mark Last of Trilogy

  • January 31 full moon was special due to three reasons:

    • It was last in a trilogy of “supermoons”.

    • It is about 14 % brighter than usual.

    • It is the second full moon of the month, commonly known as a “blue moon”, which happens every two and a half years, on average.

  • A supermoon is a new or full moon closely coinciding with perigee.

  • The moon’s closest point to Earth in its monthly orbit is known as perigee.

  • When there are two full moons in a month, it is commonly known as a “blue moon”.

What is Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate (PETN)

  • Dangerous plastic explosive preferred by militants as it cannot be easily detected owing to its colorless crystals.

  • PETN can be kept hidden in a sealed container or an electrical equipment surpassing security checks.

  • A nitrate ester of pentaerythritol structurally very similar to nitroglycerin.

  • One of the most powerful explosive materials known, with a relative effectiveness factor of 1.66.

  • Most countries have restrictions on purchase of PETN.

Amazon Ask for Drone Technology Patent in India

  • Amazon asked for patent in India for drones, or unscrewed autonomous vehicles (UAV) to deliver ordered books with extra anti-hacking protection according to the U. S. Patent and Trademark Office.

  • The package delivery system may have many different ways such as pneumatic actuators, electromagnets, spring coils, and parachutes which will create the vertical descent path of the package.

  • Drone will also ensure arrive of the right spot.

  • Deliver package in the balcony of a high-rise building the vertical descent may also altered.

IIT Kharagpur Scientists Introduce New Technology to Manufacture Biofuel

  • Scientists at IIT Kharagpur come up with a new technology of manufacturing Biofuel known as ‘soil-to-soil’ cheaper, quicker and pollution-free.

  • The technology is in the process of being patented.

  • This plant contains up to 50 % hemicelluloses which can be used as an economic and abundant source of Biofuel.

  • Biofuels are fuels derived from biomass indirectly.

  • Biofuel includes solid biomass, liquid fuels and various biogases and along with this it also signifies Biodiesel, Bio alcohol and bio-gasoline.

Photovoltaic Road Tested in China

  • China successfully tested its first photovoltaic (solar) highway based on home-grown technology in country’s eastern Shandong province.

  • It became the second country in the world to construct a photovoltaic highway.

  • Road provides wireless charging systems for electric vehicles.

  • France introduced world’s first photovoltaic road fitted with solar panels in late 2016.

  • China’s photovoltaic highway constructed using solar panels, which have thin sheet of transparent concrete on top of them, protecting the surface.

What is Ash Content in Indian Coal? Difference Between Drift Theory & In-Situ Coal Seam

  • Quality of Coal (ash content in the coal) is one of the important factors, which directly affects the power generation in the thermal power plant.

  • Ash content of coal produced in the country is generally 25 to 45%.

  • Average ash content of imported coal varies from 10 to 20%.

  • Indian Coal has comparatively higher ash content than imported coal due to drift theory of formation of coal deposits in India.

  • There are two theories proposed for accumulation of the plant materials transforming to coal:

    • In-Situ theory

    • Drift theory

First Digital Online Oncology Tutorial

  • First digital Online Oncology Tutorial Series designed by Tata Memorial Center in collaboration with the Health Ministry.

  • This is an initiative of the Health Ministry and Tata Memorial Centre (a grant-in-aid cancer centre under Department of Atomic Energy, GOI) under the Digital India initiative of GoI.

  • Oncology tutorials will train doctors across India in early detection, prevention, palliation, rehabilitation and treatment of various cancers.

  • Reaches millions of doctors who may not have time to attend physical conferences, CMEs and are busy working in rural or tier 2 cities.

Setting up of a High Altitude Cloud Observatory Near Munnar, Kerala

  • High altitude cloud physics observatory was established at Munnar (Kerala), in Western Ghats - gateway for the monsoon of India to observe cloud and rain processes over that region with state of the art instruments.

  • Enable understanding of rainfall distribution allowing better characterization of rainfall processes in the numerical models used for monsoon prediction.

  • Long term monitoring of cloud and rainfall to enable accurate representation of cloud micro-physical process in forecast models improving severe weather prediction - heavy rainfall, thunderstorm etc.

Minor Planet Named After Indian Girl Sahithi Pingali

  • Minor planet in Milky Way will going to named after the Bengaluru girl Sahithi Pingali.

  • She has developed an integrated mobile phone app and lake monitoring kit which monitors pollution in water bodies, so this is the reward for her achievements.

  • Sahithi Pingali presented her paper which is titled as “An Innovative Crowdsourcing Approach to Monitoring Freshwater Bodies” at the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair (ISEF).

  • She got 2nd rank as well as three special awards in the Earth and Environment Sciences category.

- Published/Last Modified on: May 14, 2018

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