Expected Questions for AIIMS GK 2018 Part 2 (Set 2) (Download PDF)

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Successful Launch of Chinese Remote Sensing Satellites of Yaogan-30 Project - China launched remote sensing satellites from Xichang Satellite launch centre in the southwest Sichuan province, This launch was the third batch of the Yaogan-30 project.

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Expected Questions for General Knowledge Section AIIMS 2018 - Part 2

Dr. Jain discusses Expected Questions for General Knowledge Section AIIMS 2018 - Part 2

  • The launch is the 260th mission of the Long March rocket family.

  • Long March-2C carrier rocket carried the three satellites.

  • Yaogan-30 is Remote Sensing Satellite program of China.

  • Launch of three satellites on a singular carrier rocket was done several times by the Chinese.

  • This mission is similar to the Naval Ocean Surveillance System (NOSS) operated by US.

What Makes Golden-Crowned Manakin Special? Scientists Discover First Hybrid Bird

  • Scientists discovered the first known hybrid bird species in the Amazon rainforest - a golden-crowned manakin with yellow feathers.

  • Such hybrid species among vertebrates are exceedingly rare.

  • A hybrid species forms when two parental species mate to produce a hybrid population, which then stops being able to freely interbreed with the parental species.

  • Hybrid plant species are very common but hybrid species among vertebrates are exceedingly rare.

  • Coalescent theory is a model of how gene variants sampled from a population may originate from a common ancestor.

Kepler-90i: Eighth Planet in Kepler-90 Solar System Discovered

  • National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announced the discovery of two new exoplanets, Kepler-90i and Kepler-80g using a deep learning neural network - an artificial intelligence (AI) tool that mimics the workings of a human brain.

  • This was first time AI was used for such a discovery in the universe.

  • Discovery demonstrates that good science not only solves problems but also can improve itself.

  • Exoplanets are the planets outside our solar system that orbits another star.

  • AI overs mechanism which blesses machines with “intelligence, “- at least in limited terms - emulating human being’s unique reasoning faculties.

First NIC-CERT Launched by MeitY to Prevent, Predict Cyber-attacks on Government Utilities

  • Union Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY) launched first NIC-CERT, a setup of National Informatics Centre (NIC) to prevent and predict cyber-attacks on government utilities.

  • NIC-CERT designed for early detection and mitigation of cyber-attacks on government networks.

  • NIC-CERT will have advanced tools to correlate events generating canvas of attack surface and identify vulnerabilities and possible exploits.

MERIT App, Merit Order Stack and E-Bidding Portal for Utilization of Domestic Coal

  • MERIT app or Merit Order Dispatch of Electricity for Rejuvenation of Income and Transparency.

  • The e-bidding portal provides e-Bidding solution to States to select Independent Power Producers (IPPs) for procurement of power by transferring their domestic coal under the scheme of flexibility in utilization of domestic coal.

  • Optimum utilization of Coal through these app/web portals would save the consumer close to Rs. 20, 000 crores five years down the line.

  • Merit Order Dispatch of Electricity (MERIT) app and website developed in association with POSOCO.

Excitonium is the Latest New State of Matter - What Are Other States of Matter?

  • Physicists from University of Illinois discovered a new form of matter called excitonium.

  • This condensate, made up of excitons, was theorized almost 50 years ago.

  • Term ‘excitonium’ was coined in the 1960s by Harvard theoretical physicist Bert Halperin.

  • Excitons are a type of boson formed in a semiconductor.

  • The laws of physics at the quantum level are very different with a form of matter called a Bose-Einstein condensate bridging the gap between macro and quantum worlds.

  • Like other bosons, excitons have a “ground state, ” named excitonium.

Hunga Tonga: New Volcanic Pacific Island Gives NASA a Glimpse of Life on Mars

  • NASA satellites have been observing new volcanic island in the Pacific Ocean.

  • The emerging rock offers scientists a laboratory to map rarely seen rapid geological processes, which could model the mysterious terrain of Mars.

  • The new island, Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha’apai, emerged from a violent underwater eruption in late December 2014.

  • Scientists expected the island in Tonga to survive just a few months.

  • Now, they believe it could last up to 30 years.

India Joins 5G Ecosystem and First Ever India Mobile Congress 2017

  • More than 100 leading global companies are expected to participate in India’s first ever Mobile Congress 2017.

  • Organized from 27th September to 29th September 2017.

  • Led by Department of Telecom as the nodal ministry.

  • Organized by Cellular Operators Association of India (COAI) - the industry association of mobile and telecom operators and internet companies.

  • Objective: To display, discuss, unveil, imbibe, educate, and recognize importance of the telecommunications, mobile, internet, connectivity, and digital services sector.

Indian Lego Program and Nobel Prize in Physics 2017 for Lego

  • 2017 Nobel Prize for Physics paper (discover paper) has 39 Indian authors and scientists.

  • The contributions came from nine institutions:

    • CMI Chennai

    • ICTS-TIFR Bengaluru

    • IISER-Kolkata

    • IISER-Trivandrum

    • IIT Gandhinagar

    • IPR Gandhinagar

    • IUCAA Pune

    • RRCAT Indore

    • TIFR Mumbai

  • Primarily funded through individual and institutional grants by Department of Atomic Energy, Department of Science & Technology and Ministry of Human Resource Development AE, DST and MHRD, who are co-authors of this discovery paper.

  • India took leadership in this field with LIGO-India mega-science project granted ‘in principle’ approval by the Union Cabinet on Feb 17 2016.

  • LIGO-India is being funded by:

    • Department of Atomic Energy (DAE)

    • Department of Science and Technology (DST)

Bakhshali Manuscript: How Old is Zero? 500 Years Older Than Previously Believed

  • Scientists traced the origins to zero considered as greatest breakthroughs in history of mathematics to an ancient Indian text- Bakhshali manuscript.

  • Bakhshali manuscript was housed in the UK since 1902.

  • Bakhshali manuscript written in 3rd or 4th century- thus origin of zero is 500 years older than scholars previously believed.

  • Manuscript also has world’s oldest recorded origin of the zero symbols used today.

  • Bakhshali Manuscript: Translation revealed that it was a training manual for merchants trading across the Silk Road.

What Are Biosensors? Biosensor to Detect Kidney Disorders Developed by IITs

  • Researchers from IIT Bombay and Indore jointly developed a biosensor to detect kidney disorders in less than eight minutes measuring both the pH and urea concentration with a single drop of urine.

  • Biosensor is an analytical device that converts a biological response into an electrical signal.

  • They typically use enzymes as the biologically responsive material.

  • Device is made up of a transducer and a biological element that may be an enzyme, an antibody, or a nucleic acid.

  • Bio-element interacts with analyte and biological response is converted into an electrical signal by the transducer.

Deep Ocean Mission of India

  • Union Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES) launching Deep Ocean Mission for research in ocean science and developing technology to harness ocean resources to Explore India’s 7, 500 km coastline and 2.4 million square km of exclusive economic zone (EEZ).

  • Harness the enormous opportunities of energy, food, medicine, and natural resources in Indian peninsula.

  • Compete with China in deep-sea mission for mining mineral deposits in Indian and Pacific oceans.

  • Seawater desalination project of Rs. 2, 000 crore at the Chennai coast also taken up under the mission to eliminate the potable water problem.

  • Deep Ocean Exploration Create jobs and business opportunities in ocean science.

Breakthrough Listen Project: Dwarf Galaxy Send 15 Radio Bursts

  • Breakthrough Listen project detected 15 fast radio bursts (FRBs) coming from a dwarf galaxy about 3 million light years away from earth with Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia.

  • Total of known fast radio bursts from this strange object is 150.

  • First burst was extremely intense observed across a 288 MHz radio band near the location of the Small Magellanic Cloud.

  • There are following components:

    • Breakthrough Listen

    • Breakthrough Message

    • Breakthrough Watch

    • Breakthrough Starshot

Largest Volcanic Region on Earth Under Antarctica

  • Scientists uncovered the largest volcanic region on Earth two kilometers below the surface ice sheets covering West-Antarctica.

  • Found almost 100 volcanoes with the highest as tall as the Eiger stands at almost 4, 000 m in Switzerland.

  • Huge region much larger than east Africa’s volcanic ridge, currently rated the densest concentration of volcanoes in the world.

  • Newly discovered volcanoes range in height from 100 to 3, 850 meters- covered in ice sometimes more than 4km thick.

Editing the Genes of Human Embryos: Moral Issues

  • Oregon Health and Science University scientists’ successfully edited genes of human embryos correcting defective DNA that can cause inherited diseases.

  • They used the CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing technology to alter single-cell human embryos allowing specific sections of DNA to be altered or replaced.

  • Scientists used sperm donated from men who carried inherited disease mutations to demonstrate the correction.

  • One-celled embryos only allowed to develop for a few days using a process called “germline engineering”.

Distribution of Methane Hydrate- Methane Hydrate under South China Sea Exploited

  • China successfully produced natural gas from methane hydrate in the South China Sea (SCS).

  • Total of 3, 09, 000 cubic meters of natural gas was produced from gas hydrate in 60 days.

  • India also has rich deposits of methane hydrates.

  • Gas hydrates consist natural gas (most commonly methane) enclosed within a solid lattice of water molecules.

  • Large store of organic carbon opportunity to understand hydrate’s role in global carbon cycling, natural geohazards, and as a potential future source of energy.

Nanotechnology-Based Drug Delivery System Developed by All-Women Team of IIT Delhi Researchers

  • All-women team of researchers from IIT Delhi developed a new drug delivery platform based on nanoparticles with ability to boost efficacy of antibiotics at the cellular level.

  • Improve chances of recovery from cancer-related bacterial infections.

  • Traditional drug delivery system leaves bacterial infection in cancer untreated infecting the host even after the cancer cells are killed by chemotherapy.

  • New nanotechnology-based drug delivery system uses sushi-peptide conjugated to gold nanoparticle able to kill E. coli and Salmonella typhi bacteria more efficiently at lower dosages at much lower concentration than free peptides.

IISc Researchers Develop Low-Cost, Sensitive CO Sensor

  • Indian Institute of Science (IISc) researchers developed a highly sensitive, low cost miniature nanometer-scale carbon monoxide (CO) sensor for pollution monitoring using novel fabrication technique not involving costly lithography technology.

  • Smog -

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Lancet Commission on Pollution & Health; Great Smog of Delhi

Dr. Manishika Jain explains Lancet Commission on Pollution & Health & Great Smog of Delhi

  • CO is a colorless, odorless gas found in fumes of cars or trucks, small engines, stoves, lanterns, grills, fireplaces, gas ranges, or furnaces.

  • CO can build up indoors and poison people breathing it.

  • Breathing CO reduces amount of oxygen transported in the blood stream to critical organs like the heart and brain.

Bionic Leaf: Bacteria Can Convert Solar Energy to Liquid Fuel

  • Scientists from Harvard University created a system that uses bacteria to convert solar energy into liquid fuel.

  • Work produces an “artificial leaf, ” using a catalyst to make sunlight split water into hydrogen and oxygen, with a bacterium engineered to convert carbon dioxide plus hydrogen into the liquid fuel isopropanol.

  • We can harness solar energy as fuel by using electricity from photovoltaic cells to yield hydrogen that can be later used in fuel cells.

  • New discovery harvests solar energy and stores it in the form of a liquid fuel.

  • Local energy especially attractive in the developing countries like India.

Scientists Identify Four Bacterial Strains to Remove Sulphur from Fossil Fuels

  • Scientists from CSIR-Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology (CSIR-IMMT) found 4 bacterial strains.

  • That removes sulphur from fossil fuels such as petroleum and coal.

  • Sulphur is one of the major pollutants emitted during the combustion of fossil fuels.

  • 4 bacterial strains are:

    • Rhodococcus rhodochrous

    • Arthrobacter sulfureou

    • Gordonia rubropertinita

    • Rhodococcus erythropolis

Researchers Develop Potent Molecule to Treat Chikungunya

  • Researchers from Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Roorkee identified two small potent molecules Pep-I and Pep-II, for their inhibitory activity to treat Chikungunya disease.

  • Currently, there are no drugs to treat chikungunya or any vaccine to prevent it.

  • Antiviral activity was tested by adding molecules directly into virus culture.

  • During studies it was confirmed that both molecules have significant ability to kill virus.

  • Chikungunya is a mosquito-borne virus that causes a disease.

USFDA Approves World’s First Contact Lens That Automatically Darkens when Exposed to Bright Light

  • US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved use of Acuvue Oasys Contact Lenses with Transitions Light Intelligent Technology.

  • World’s first contact lens that automatically darkens when exposed to bright light.

  • It is first of its kind contact lens to incorporate same technology that is used in eyeglasses that automatically darken in the sun.

  • These contact lens are soft contact lenses indicated for daily use to correct vision of people with non-diseased eyes who are nearsighted (myopic) or farsighted (hyperopic).

Indian Mosquitoes Susceptible to Zika Virus

  • National Institute of Virology (NIV) study found that Indian Aedes aegypti mosquito transmits dengue and chikungunya viruses are easily susceptible to zika virus.

  • Also found that Indian Aedes aegypti mosquito infected with African strain MR-766 of Zika virus (ZIKV) can easily transmit infection.

  • This study shows that Indian mosquitoes pick up ZIKA in natural way.

IIT-Delhi Installs India’s First 5G Lab

  • Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) -Delhi installed Massive Multiple-Input, Multiple-Output (MIMO) lab on campus for standardisation, R&D and manufacturing of 5G equipment.

  • It will be the first of its kind 5G lab in India.

  • It has been set-up at Bharti School of Telecommunication Technology and Management.

  • Lab will serve as 5G base station prototypes that will be used to test and verify algorithms and also develop complete 5G base station.

  • It will help in manufacturing of 5G base stations in India with support and collaboration from industry.

  • 5G is wireless communication technology based on third-generation partnership project (3GPP).

Indian Origin Scientist Develops World’s First Microfactory for E-waste

  • IIT-trained Australian scientist of Indian origin Veena Sahajwalla launched world’s first micro factory.

  • That can transform components from electronic waste items into valuable materials for re-use.

  • E-waste micro factory uses green manufacturing technologies to turn many types of consumer waste such as glass, plastic and timber into commercial materials and products.

Parker Solar Probe: NASA to Launch Humanity’s First Flight to Sun in July 2018

  • NASA’s will launch humanity’s first mission Parker Solar Probe (PSP) to the Sun in July 31, 2018.

  • After its launch, the probe will orbit directly through solar atmosphere — the corona — closer to surface than any human-made object has ever gone.

  • It is NASA’s first planned robotic spacecraft to study outer corona of Sun.

  • It has been designed and built by Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory.

RH300 Sounding Rocket Launched for Atmospheric Studies

  • RH-300 MKII sounding rocket developed by IRSO’s Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC) was successfully launched from Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station in Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala.

  • Rocket launched by VSSC under Sounding Rocket Experiment (SOUREX) program for atmospheric studies.

  • It utilises this rocket to study Equatorial and lower ionosphere regions of atmosphere.

  • It was overall 21st launch of RH300 sounding rocket.

Government Bans Imports of Hormone Oxytocin

  • Union government banned imports of hormone oxytocin to stop its misuse in livestock industry, where it causes hormonal imbalances and shortens the lives of milch animals.

  • Government decided to rely on domestic production to satisfy requirements of hormone.

  • It has asked customs officials to step up vigilance against those likely to try and smuggle oxytocin into India.

  • Oxytocin, often called love hormone, is released naturally in human bonding activities such as sex, childbirth and breastfeeding.

K2 - 229b: Hot, Metallic Earth-sized Planet Discovered

  • Scientists using Kepler 2 telescope discovered hot, metallic, Earth-sized planet named K2 - 229b orbiting dwarf star located 260 million light years away.

  • They had employed Doppler spectroscopy technique also known as wobble method to discover and characterize this faraway planet.

  • K2 - 229b planet is almost 20 % larger than Earth but has mass which is over two-and-a-half times greater.

  • K2 - 229b orbits its star every fourteen hours.

Fluorimeter: DAE Develops Device to Measure Uranium Traces in Water

  • The Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT), an Indore-based unit of Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) developed an instrument called Fluorimeter, to measure traces of uranium in water.

  • The device is capable of examining traces of uranium in sample of water from 0.1 PPB (Parts-per-billion) unit to 100 PPB.

  • It costs around Rs. 1 lakh.

Marshall Islands to Launch World-first Digital Legal Tender

  • Marshall Islands in Pacific Ocean is set to become first country in world to recognize crypto currency as its legal tender and adopt transparent crypto monetary system.

  • The parliament of island passed law to create the digital currency called “Sovereign” with symbol SOV to raise some hard cash to pay bills and boost economy.

  • Marshall Islands is partnering with Israeli Fintech startup Neema to launch its SOV.

Balong 5G01 Chipset: Huawei Unveils World’s First 5G Chip

  • Chinese electronic device and smartphone maker Huawei has unveiled Balong 5G01, world’s first 5G chip at Mobile World Congress 2018 held in Barcelona, Spain.

  • The company also showed its f5G-ready CPE equipment.

  • The chip has been designed and manufactured by Huawei.

QOL-2C: AYUSH Drug Developed by CCRAS for Cancer Patients

  • Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences (CCRAS) undertaken development of coded drug AYUSH QOL-2C for improving quality of life in cancer patients.

  • It had conducted clinical studies of the drug in breast cancer patients at St. John’s Medical College, Bengaluru and AIIMS, New Delhi and in lung cancer patients at Bhagwan Mahaveer Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Jaipur

India-UK Joint Team Wins Newton-Bhabha Fund for Groundwater Arsenic Research Project

  • India-United Kingdom (UK) Joint Team won Newton-Bhabha Fund for project on Groundwater Arsenic Research in Ganga River Basin.

  • Project was undertaken by Department of Science and Technology (DST) in collaboration with Natural Environment Research Council (NERC), UK to find solutions to water challenges faced in pervasively arsenic-affected Ganga River Basin.

  • Newton-Bhabha Fund provided by the British Council.

Saposhi: Threat of New Malware Looms over Cyberspace

  • Cybersecurity agencies detected a new malware called Saposhi that can take over electronic devices and use them for Distributed Denial of Service attacks.

  • Saposhi Malware is capable of taking over electronic devices and turning them into bots (device taken over by malware) which can then be used for any purpose, including DDoS attacks which, with enough firepower, can cripple entire industries.

  • Malwares like Saposhi, Reaper and Mirai are primarily are used for DDoS attacks.

Silver Copper Telluride (AgCuTe): Researchers Develop Thermoelectric Compound

  • Researchers developed silver copper telluride (AgCuTe), a novel compound that exhibits poor thermal conductivity but shows good electrical conductivity.

  • It was developed by researchers from Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research (JNCASR), Bengaluru.

  • New material having thermoelectric properties is made from silver, copper, and tellurium.

  • It shows high levels of thermoelectric performance.

China Develops Artificial Heart with Rocket Technology

  • Chinese scientists developed artificial heart using rocket technology.

  • It is currently undergoing thorough testing experiments on animals.

  • The heart was developed jointly by China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology (CALT) and Teda International Cardiovascular Hospital in North China’s Tianjin.

  • The artificial heart uses magnetic and fluid levitation from rocket system.

IISc scientists develop first super critical carbon dioxide (S-CO2) Brayton Test Loop facility

  • Scientists from Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bengaluru have indigenously developed country’s first super critical carbon dioxide (S-CO2) Brayton Test Loop facility.

  • Facility was inaugurated at the IISc campus.

  • It is first test loop technology coupled with solar heat source in world.

  • That will generate clean energy from power plants, including solar thermal.

  • The facility is part of Indo-US consortium- Solar Energy Research Institute for India and United States (SERIIUS).

Light Transport Aircraft SARAS Successfully Completes Second Test-flight

  • India’s indigenous developed light transport aircraft SARAS PT1N successfully completed 2nd test-flight.

  • It was the 2nd of the 20 test flights planned for SARAS PT1N, before it is frozen to production version.

  • First successful test was carried out in January 2017.

  • Indian Air Force (IAF) committed to induct 15 aircrafts initially.

Malacidins: New Class of Antibiotics from Soil

  • Scientists from Rockefeller University in New York have reported discovery of a new class of antibiotics called malacidins.

  • It has been produced by microorganisms living in soil and dirt.

  • It is capable of killing off several antibiotic-resistant pathogens.

  • The new family of antibiotics comes from molecules present in large variety of soils.

Scientists for First Time Grow Human Eggs to Full Maturity in Laboratory

  • Scientists from Britain and US for first time succeeded in growing human eggs in laboratory from earliest stages in ovarian tissue all way to full maturity.

  • This is the first time human eggs have been developed outside the human body from their earliest stage to full maturity.

UK Allows Doctors to Create Three-parent Babies through Mitochondrial Donation

  • Britain’s fertility regulator Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) allowed doctors to create country’s first ‘three-parent’ babies through mitochondrial donation therapy (or MRT).

  • This move aimed: At preventing passage of incurable genetic diseases from mothers to offsprings.

  • HEFA approved procedures to be applied on two women in the city of Newcastle in northeast England.

Mihir: High Performance Computing Facility

  • Ministry of Earth Science (MoES) inaugurated high performance computer system (HPC) or supercomputer Mihir (meaning sun) at National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (NCMRWF), Noida.

  • HCP will provide facility for improving weather/climate forecasts.

  • It is country’s largest HPC facility in terms of peak capacity and performance.

NASA Interested in India-made Thermal Spray Coating Technology

  • NASA is interested in new India-made thermal spray coating technology used for gas turbine engine in spacecraft.

  • It has been developed by Dr. Satish Tailor, Rajasthan-based researcher working with Jodhpur-based Metallizing Equipment Company (MEC).

  • The technology is called controlled segmented Yttria-Stabilised Zirconia (YSZ) -Plasma sprayed coating technology.

Rotavac: First India-designed Vaccine to Pass WHO Test

  • Rotavac became first indigenously developed vaccine from India to be pre-qualified by WHO.

  • It means that vaccine can be sold internationally to several countries in South America and Africa.

  • So far, several vaccines from India have been pre-qualified by WHO.

  • Rotavac is first vaccine entirely developed locally to get this status in safe.

MIT Scientists Create Plants That Can Glow in Dark

  • MIT: Massachusetts Institute of Technology

  • Scientists from MIT, US found a novel way to induce plants to give off dim light by embedding specialized nanoparticles into their leaves.

  • Purpose of this experiment: To make plant function as a desk lamp, powered by the energy metabolism of the plant itself and not by electricity.

SAM: World’s First AI Politician Developed

  • Scientists from New Zealand developed world’s first artificial intelligence politician named SAM.

  • Created by: Nick Gerritsen, entrepreneur in New Zealand.

  • Virtual politician SAM can answer person’s queries regarding local issues such as:

    • policies around housing

    • education

    • immigration

Improved Samba Masuri: CCMB-IIRR Develop Low Glycemic Index Rice

  • Hyderabad based Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB) in association with Indian Institute of Rice Research (IIRR) developed Improved Samba Masuri (ISM) variety rice with low Glycemic Index (GI).

  • Rice with low GI is considered suitable for people with diabetics.

  • Consumption of food with low GI results in slow release of glucose into bloodstream reducing the ill-effects of diabetes.

Scientists Link New Virus to Kala-azar

  • Scientists found that parasite called Leptomonas seymouri hosting virus called Lepsey NLV1.

  • It may be also responsible for spread of kala-azar (visceral leishmaniasis).

  • Earlier, it was believed that parasite Leishmania donovani (sandfly) alone is responsible for spread of the dreaded infection.

  • Discovery portends new kind of treatment regime and may aid attempts to eradicating disease.

Ichthyosaur Fossil Discovered for First Time in India

  • Geologists for the first time discovered 152 million-year-old fossil of Ichthyosaur, an extinct marine reptile in Kutch desert region of Gujarat.

  • Specimen belongs to Ophthalmosauridae family of ichthyosaurs.

  • That lived in oceans between 165 and 90 million years.

  • Detail examination fossil’s teeth suggested that it was top-tier predator in its ecosystem and ate animals.

CSIR-NIIST Scientists Develop Organic Near-infrared Filter

  • Scientists from Thiruvananthapuram based CSIR-National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology (CSIR-NIIST) developed organic filter that allows only near-infrared (NIR) light to pass through it.

  • Found to absorb light from 300 - 850 nm and transmit NIR light from 850 - 1500 nm.

  • Researchers developed filter by mixing organogel with transparent polymer (polydimethylsiloxane).

CarbFix Project

  • World’s first negative emissions carbon-capture plant begins operations in Hellisheidi, Iceland.

  • It is intended to lock away carbon dioxide by reacting it with basaltic rocks.

  • Work on the project began in 2007.

  • In it CO2 is captured from ambient air, bound to water and sent to more than 700 meters underground.

World’s Largest Combustion Research Centre Inaugurated at IIT Madras.

  • National Centre for Combustion Research and Development (NCCRD) was inaugurated at Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Madras in Tamil Nadu.

  • World’s largest combustion research centre.

  • One of best diagnostic centres in the country to understand combustion.

  • NCCRD is supported by state-run Science and Engineering Research Board (SERN) of Department of Science and Technology (DST), Ministry of S&T.

  • Established at a total cost of Rs. 90 crore.

Jacques Dubochet, Joachim Frank and Richard Henderson Selected for 2017 Nobel Prize in Chemistry

  • The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has selected Jacques Dubochet, Joachim Frank and Richard Henderson for the 2017 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

  • Selected for developing cryo-electron microscopy for the high resolution structure determination of biomolecules in solution.

  • Joachim Frank made technology more widely applicable.

Sibir: World’s Biggest and Most Powerful Nuclear Icebreaker Ship Launched by Russia

  • Russia launched Sibir (Siberia).

  • World’s largest nuclear-powered icebreaker ship built under Project 22220 into the water at the Baltic Shipyard in St Petersburg.

  • Sibir is second of three icebreakers of new class of biggest nuclear powered icebreakers ever constructed under Project 22220.

  • First one was Arktika (Arctic) was put in service in June 2016.

  • Third icebreaker Ural is set to be completed in 2019.

2017 Nobel Prize in Physics Goes to the Discovery of Gravitational Waves

  • Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has selected three American scientists for the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics:

    • Rainer Weiss

    • Barry C. Barish

    • Kip S. Thorne

  • Selected for their decisive contributions to the LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory) detector and the observation of gravitational waves.

Three US-born Scientists Win 2017 Nobel Medicine Prize

  • The 2017 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to:

    • Jeffrey C. Hall (72)

    • Michael Rosbash (73)

    • Michael W. Young (68)

  • It was announced by Nobel Assembly at Sweden’s Karolinska Institute.

  • They were awarded for discovering molecular mechanisms controlling circadian rhythm.

Scientists Make Cheap and Clean Fuel from Air

  • Scientists from Cardiff University, UK discovered a new way to produce methanol from methane using oxygen from the air.

  • Discovery has major implications for cleaner, greener industrial processes worldwide.

  • Methanol is an important chemical often used as fuel in vehicles.

  • New technique uses:

    • freely available air

    • inexpensive chemicals

    • an energy efficient methanol production process

XFEL: World’s Biggest and Powerful X-ray Laser Gun Unveiled

  • World’s largest and powerful X-ray laser - European X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) was unveiled in Hamburg, Germany.

  • First beams from XFEL were accelerated in April 2017.

  • First X-ray beams were produced in May 2017.

  • It will help scientists penetrate the inner workings of atoms, viruses and chemical reactions.

ICOSIS unveils Ocean forecasting system for Comoros, Madagascar and Mozambique

  • Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS) of the Ministry of Earth Sciences inaugurated Ocean Forecasting System for Indian Ocean countries:

    • Comoros

    • Madagascar

    • Mozambique

  • INCOIS is an autonomous organization of the Union Government.

  • Established in 1999 and is headquartered in Pragathi Nagar, Hyderabad.

Microsoft Launches Project Brainwave for Real-time Artificial Intelligence

  • Software giant Microsoft launched Project Brainwave, a deep learning acceleration platform for real-time artificial intelligence (AI).

  • Its launch is important as the real-time AI.

  • It can processes requests as fast as it receives them with the help of ultra-low latency.

Versius: World’s Smallest Surgical Robot Developed by UK Scientists

  • Scientists in the United Kingdom (UK) developed the world’s smallest surgical robot called Versius.

  • Developed using low-cost technology used in mobile phones and space industries.

  • Robot can mimic human arm and can be used to carry out a wide range of surgical procedures.

  • Controlled by a surgeon using a console guided by a 3D screen in the operating theatre.

Chemical from Turmeric Treats Cancer in Children

  • Scientists from US found that curcumin, the bioactive component of turmeric that is widely used in Indian cuisine can treat cancer in children.

  • They have found that nanoparticles loaded with curcumin can target and destroy neuroblastoma tumour cells.

  • Commonly affects children aged five or less.

- Published/Last Modified on: May 14, 2018

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