Expected Questions for GK – AIIMS 2018 (Part - 1) (Download PDF)

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Metallic Hydrogen created - Made by applying almost five million atmospheres of pressure to liquid hydrogen, 1st time hydrogen existed in metallic state, Can act as superconductor and revolutionize rocketry.

NCERT Lectures Study Material for Competitive Exams-Updated for 2018 - 2019 Changes

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Expected Questions for General Knowledge Section AIIMS 2018

Dr. Jain discusses Expected Questions for General Knowledge Section AIIMS 2018

Super-Earth - LHS 1140b

  • Found in habitable zone of a dim star 40 light-years away from Earth
  • Exoplanet discovered

Human Embryo edited

  • By gene- editing technique, CRISPR, a gene linked to heart conditions was successfully “deleted” from a human embryo.
  • “CRISPR” stands for Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats, which are the hallmark of a bacterial defense system that forms the basis for CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing technology.

DeepMind

  • Google’s artificial intelligence subsidiary DeepMind published a paper illustrating the way they are teaching AI computer agents to navigate complex environments
  • DeepMind is a British artificial intelligence company founded in September 2010

New Organs Discovered

Mesentery

  • 79th organ

  • Previous considered part of digestive system

  • The organ is a double fold of peritoneum - the lining of the abdominal cavity - that holds our intestine to the wall of our abdomen.

  • Connects abdomen to intestine

  • It was described by the Italian polymath Leanardo da Vinci in 1508, but it has been ignored throughout the centuries, until now.

Interstitium

  • 80th organ

  • Skin the largest organ so far would lose its first position

  • Largest organ

  • Space beneath the skin that contains fluid-filled structures, which may act as a “shock absorber” to keep other organs safe. It is wrapped beneath the skin across the body, surrounding internal organs, even wrapped around veins and arteries.

Stephen William Hawking

  • English theoretical physicist, cosmologist, author

  • Director of Research at the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology within the University of Cambridge.

  • Collaboration with Roger Penrose on gravitational singularity theorems in the framework of general relativity and the theoretical prediction that black holes emit radiation, often called Hawking radiation.

  • First to set out a theory of cosmology explained by a union of the general theory of relativity and quantum mechanics.

  • He suffered from ALS (Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis)

  • Popular books by Hawkings

    • A Brief History of Time (1988)

    • Black Holes and Baby Universes and Other Essays (1993)

    • The Universe in a Nutshell (2001)

    • On the Shoulders of Giants (2002)

    • God Created the Integers: The Mathematical Breakthroughs That Changed History (2005)

    • The Dreams That Stuff Is Made of: The Most Astounding Papers of Quantum Physics and How They Shook the Scientific World (2011)

    • My Brief History (2013)

ALS

  • It is a neurodegenerative disorder - mainly involve the nerve cells (neurons) responsible for controlling voluntary muscle movement like chewing, walking, and talking.

  • The rare condition normally claims the lives of those who have it within two to three years of diagnosis, making Hawking’s five-decade fight to overcome the disease an extraordinary exception.

  • Only five percent of patients live for 20 years or more.

  • Personalities who suffered from ALS - Playwright Sam Shepard, who died in August 2017, “Sesame Street” co-creator Jon Stone and jazz musician Charles Mingus.

  • ALS is commonly referred to as “Lou Gehrig’s disease” in a nod to the baseball legend who is believed to have died from the illness in 1941.

  • Stiffness and muscle weakness

  • Majority of people suffer from a “sporadic” version that can affect anyone while up 10 % of cases in the US are considered to be inherited.

Monkey Cloning

  • 1st time in China

  • Zhong Zhong and Hua Hua are long tailed cloned macaque

  • They are named after the Mandarin term for the Chinese nation and people.

  • Made by same technique as used for Dolly sheep

  • Result of 79 attempts

  • Dolly made history 20 years ago after being cloned at the Roslin Institute in Edinburgh. It was the first time scientists had been able to clone a mammal from an adult cell, taken from the udder.

  • Somatic cell nuclear transfer technique (SCNT) involves transferring DNA from the nucleus of a cell to a donated egg cell, which has had its own DNA removed. This is then prompted to develop into an embryo and implanted in a surrogate animal. Zhong Zhong and Hua Hua are the first non-human primates cloned through this technique.

  • In 1999, a rhesus monkey embryo was split in two in order to create two identical twins. One of the baby monkeys born through that technique - called Tetra - has the title of the world’s first cloned monkey, but it did not involve the complex process of DNA transfer.

Existing and Proposed AIIMS

Map of Existing and Proposed AIIMS

Map of Existing and Proposed AIIMS

Map of Existing and Proposed AIIMS

- Published/Last Modified on: April 2, 2018

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