Balanced Diet, Functions of Vitamins, Carbohydrates, Vitamins, Minerals

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Balanced Diet

  • The food which contains all essential food nutrients which are necessary and essential for healthy growth of the body and proper functioning of the whole parts of body.

  • Food is a complex mixture of chemical substances.

  • It performs following useful functions when eaten and absorbed by the body.

  • Produces energy

  • Promote growth

  • Repair the tissues

  • Regulate various processes

  • Nutrients are the chemical components of food capable of performing above functions.

  • Example: milk is a balanced diet although it does not contain iron.

  • Following are the major components of Balanced Diet and their source and functions:


  • Source: Honey, Sugarcane, Wheat, Maize, Potatoes.

  • Functions: Provide energy


  • Source: Butter, Cheese, Soya bean, Mustard etc.

  • Functions: Provide Energy


  • Source: Meat, Eggs, Fish, Milk, Pulses etc.

  • Functions: Essential for growth


  • Source: Fruits and Vegetables.

  • Functions: Important for proper physiologic and metabolic functions of the body.


  • Water Soluble Vitamins: B1, B2, B6, B12, C

  • Fat Soluble vitamins: A, D, E, K


  • Minerals are those inorganic substances which play a key role in the maintenance and building of the body tissues. The most important minerals of balanced diet are as under:

  • Phosphorus: is necessary for bones and teeth.

  • Iron: is an essential component of blood.

  • Iodine: is necessary for thyroxin which is secreted from thyroid gland.

  • Calcium: is necessary for bone development.


  • Source: Fruits, Vegetables

  • Functions: It is constituent of blood, lymph, hormones and other secretions of the body.

Functions of Vitamins

Vitamin A

  • Role: Vitamin A plays an important role in growth and body repair, keeps the skin smooth and essential for vision.

  • Deficiency: it deficiency causes ―Night Blindness‖.

  • Source: Fortified milk, butter, eggs, cream, leafy vegetables, carrot.

Vitamin B1

  • Role: it is an energy building vitamin, help in the digestion of carbohydrates, keep the heart and muscle stable and necessary for nerves.

  • Deficiency: its deficiency causes Beri Beri, muscular weakness, cramps and heart swelling.

  • Source: Pork, cereals, legumes, nuts and seeds.

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)

  • Role: It is important in forming RBCs, protection of mouth and mucous membrane and skin.

  • Deficiency: its deficiency causes ―Pellagra‖

  • Source: Milk, leafy green vegetables, cereals etc.

Vitamin B3 (Niacin)

  • Role: Helps in releasing energy from carbohydrates, fats and proteins, very essential for the DNA synthesis, used to lower elevated LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the blood, boosts the level of HDL, the ‘good’ cholesterol, in the body, essential for the proper digestion of the food etc.

  • Deficiency: its deficiency causes Loss of appetite, Indigestion, Skin lesions, mental imbalance etc.

  • Source: Meat, poultry, fish, cereals, vegetables, peanuts, butter etc.

Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)

  • Role: it is essential for the production of antibodies, for the CNS and help in protein metabolism in the body.

  • Deficiency: Skin problems, Nervous system disorders, Muscle spasms, Sleeplessness.

  • Source: Meat, fish, poultry, vegetables, fruits etc.

Vitamin B12 (Cynocobalamine)

  • Role: it is important for carbohydrate and fat metabolism, growth of child and formation of blood.

  • Deficiency: its deficiency causes ―anaemia‖

  • Source: Meat, poultry, fish, seafood, eggs, milk.

Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)

  • Role: It is essential for protection of bones and for healthy teeth and gums.

  • Deficiency: its deficiency causes ―Scurvy‖

  • Source: Citrus fruit, guava, pineapple, tomatoes, spinach, turnips, strawberry.

Vitamin D

  • Role: It is very important for the growth of children.

  • Deficiency: Its deficiency causes ―Rickets‖ in children and Osteoporosis in adults.

  • Source: Egg yolk, liver, fish, milk.

Vitamin E

  • Role: it plays an important role in wound healing, prevention of sterility, breaking blood clots and prevents damage of cells due to aging.

  • Source: Leafy green vegetables, soya bean, cotton seed, liver, egg yolk, nuts etc.

  • Deficiency: its deficiency slows down the formation of RBCs.

Vitamin K

  • Role: essential for blood clotting.

  • Deficiency: its deficiency causes ―Blood clotting Disorder‖

  • Source: Leafy green vegetables, milk, fish, liver, alfalfa.

Minerals: Their Functions, Source and Sings of Deficiency


  • Role:

    • It is essential constituent of bones and teeth.

    • It is vital for metabolic process such as nerve function, muscle contraction, and blood clotting.

  • Source: Dairy Products

  • Deficiency: Osteomalacia (softening of bones), Osteoporosis, Rickets, Tetany


  • Role: It is the key constituent of hemoglobin which helps in transfer of oxygen.

  • Source: Eggs, Green Vegetables, Fortified foods, Cereals, White flour, Liver, Meat, Nuts, Peas.

  • Deficiency: Anaemia, Increased susceptibility to infection.


  • Role: it is essential for healthy bones; muscles and nervous tissues. It is needed for functioning of approx. 90 enzymes.

  • Source: Eggs, leafy vegetables, fish, milk and dairy products.

  • Deficiency: Anxiety, fatigue, insomnia, muscle problem, nausea, premenstrual problem.


  • Role: it is important for healthy bone tissues.

  • Source: Dairy products, fruits, meat, pulses, leafy vegetables.

  • Deficiency: Anaemia, demineralization of bones, nerve disorder, respirator problem, weakness, weight loss.


  • Role: it is essential for intracellular fluid, maintenance of electrical potential of the nervous system and functioning of muscle and nerve tissues.

  • Source: Cereals, coffee, fresh fruits, meat, vegetables, whole-grains, flour.

  • Deficiency: General muscle paralysis and metabolic disorder.


  • Role: it is necessary for the control of the volume of extra cellular fluid in the body maintenance of pH of the body, and electrical potentials of the nervous system.

  • Source: Bakery products, Table salts

  • Deficiency: Low blood pressure, general muscle weakness, respiratory problems.