AILET (All India Law Entrance Test) 2019 MCQs Questions with Solutions and Explanations at Doorsteptutor. Com Part 1

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Direction: Read the following passage carefully and then answer the questions that follow.

Surajendu Kumar՚s study on the effect of the modernization of a Government Printing Press on Press maintenance work and workers is a solid contribution to a debate that encompasses two lively issues in the history and sociology of technology: technological determinism and social constructivism.

Kumar makes the point that the characteristics of a technology have a decisive influence on job skills and work organization. Put more strongly, technology can be a primary determinant of social and managerial organization. Kumar believes this possibility has been obscured by the recent sociological fashion, exemplified by Cravman՚s analysis, that emphasizes the way machinery reflects social choices. For Cravman, the shape of a technological system is subordinate to the managers desire to wrest control of the labor process from the workers. Technological change is construed as the outcome of negotiations among interested parties who seek to incorporate their own interests into the design and configuration of the machinery. This position represents the new mainstream called the social constructivism.

The constructivists gain acceptance by misrepresenting technological determinism: technological determinists are supposed to believe, for example, that machinery imposes appropriate forms of order on society. The alternative to constructivism, in other words, is to view technology as existing outside society, capable of directly influencing skills and work organization.

Kumar refutes the extremes of the constructivists by both theoretical and empirical arguments. Theoretically, he defines “technology” in terms of relationship between social and technical variables. Attempts to reduce the meaning of technology to cold, hard metal are bound to fail, for machinery is just scrap unless it is organized functionally and supported by appropriate systems at operation and maintenance. At the empirical level, Kumar shows how a change at the Printing Press from maintenance-intensive electromechanical devices to semi-electronic devices altered work tasks, skills, training opportunities, administration, and organization of workers. Some changes Kumar attributes to the particular way management and labor unions negotiated the introduction of the technology, whereas others are seen as arising from the capabilities and nature of the technology itself. Thus, Kumar helps answer the question: “When is social choice decisive and when are concrete characteristics of technology more important?”

Question 1

The primary purpose of the passage is to -

A. challenge the position of advocates of technological determinism.

B. consider a successful challenge to the constructivist view of technological change.

C. suggest that the social causes of the technological change should be studied in real Situation.

D. advocate a more positive attitude towards technological change.

Question 2

Which of the following statements about the modernization of the Printing Press is supported by the information provided in the passage?

A. Some of the maintenance workers felt victimized by the new technology.

B. The modernization was implemented without the consent of the employees directly affected by it.

C. The new technology reduced the role of managers in labor negotiations.

D. The modernization had an impact that went significantly beyond maintenance routines.

Question 3

Which of the following most accurately describes Kumar՚s opinion of Cravman՚s position?

A. He is sympathetic to its concern about the impact of modem technology on workers.

B. He is concerned about its potential to impede the Implementation of new technologies

C. He disapproves of its misplaced emphasis on the influence of managers.

D. He admires the consideration it gives to the attitude of workers affected.

Question 4

Which of the following statements from the passage suggests that the hypothetical sociological studies of change in industry most clearly exemplifies the social constructivists՚ version of technological determinism?

A. It is the available technology that determines worker՚s skills, rather than workers skill influencing the application cl technology.

B. Some industrial technology eliminates jobs, but educated workers can create whole new skills areas by the adaptation of the technology.

C. Most major technological advances in industry have been generated through research and development.

D. All progress in industrial technology grows Out of a continuing negotiation between technological possibility and human need.

Question 5

According to the passage, Kumar believes if social constructivism had not gained widespread acceptance, then which of the following would be true?

A. Modernization would have occurred at a slower rate.

B. Businesses would be more likely to modernize without considering the social consequences of their actions.

C. There would be greater understanding of the role played by technology in producing social change.

D. Businesses would be less likely to understand the attitudes of employees affected by modernization.

Question 6

According to the passage, constructivists employed which of the following to promote their argument?

A. Construction of hypothetical situations that support their view.

B. Empirical studies of business situations involving technological change.

C. Description of the breadth of impact of technological change.

D. Contrasts of their view with a misstatement of an opposing view.

Question 7

The author of the passage uses the expression “are supposed to” in third para (highlighted) primarily in order to -

A. define the generally accepted position of determinists regarding the implementation of technology

B. engage in speculation about the motivation of determinists

Csuggest that a contention made by constructivists regarding determinists is inaccurate

D. lend support to a comment critical of the position of determinists

Question 8

Which of the following statements about Kumar՚s study of the Printing Press can be inferred from the information in the passage?

A. Kumar՚s study suggests that the implementation of technology should be discussed in the context of conflict between labor and management.

B. Kumar examined the impact of changes in the technology at the printing Press in terms of overall operations and organization.

C. Kumar concluded that the implementation of new technology was equally beneficial to management and labor.

D. Kumar՚s reason for undertaking the study was to undermine Cravman՚s analysis of the function of technology.