AILET (All India Law Entrance Test) 2020 MCQs Questions with Solutions and Explanations at Doorsteptutor. Com Part 1

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Direction: Each set of questions in this section is based on the passage. The questions are to be answered based on what is stated or implied in the passage. For some of the questions, more than one of the choices could conceivably answer the question. However, you are to choose the best answer; that is, the response that most accurately and completely answers the questions.

To understand the development of Gangetic Valley plains, scholars have traditionally relied primarily on evidence from historical documents. However, such documentary sources provide a fragmentary record at best. Reliable accounts are very scarce for many parts of Northern India before the fifteenth century, and many of the relevant documents from the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries focus selectively on matters relating to cultural or commercial interests.

Studies of fossilized pollens preserved in peats and lake muds provide an additional means of investigating vegetative landscape change. Details of changes in vegetation resulting from both human activities and natural events are reflected in the kinds and quantities of minute pollens that become trapped in sediments. Analysis of samples can identify which kinds of plants produced the preserved pollens and when they were deposited, and in many cases, the findings can serve to supplement or correct the documentary record.

For example, analysis of samples from a bay in Jammu has revealed significant patterns of cereal-grain pollens beginning by about the fourth century. The substantial clay content of the soil in this part of Jammu makes cultivation by primitive tools difficult. Historians thought that such soils were not tilled to any significant extent until the introduction of the wooden plough to India in the seventh century. Because cereal cultivation would have required tiling of the soil, the pollen evidence indicates that these soils must indeed have been successfully tilled before the introduction of the new plough.

Another example concerns flax cultivation in Jammu, one of the great linen-producing areas of India during the sixteenth century. Some aspects of linen production in Jammu are well documented, but the documentary record tells little about the cultivation of flax, the plant from which linen is made, in that area. The record of sixteenth-century linen production in Jammu, together with the knowledge that flax cultivation had been established in India centuries before that time, led some historians to surmise that this plant was being cultivated in Jammu before the sixteenth century. But pollens analyses indicate that this is not the case; flax pollens were found only in deposits laid down since the sixteenth century.

It must be stressed, though, that there are limits to the ability of the pollen record to reflect the vegetative history of the landscape. For example, pollen analysis cannot identify the species, but only the genus or family, of some plants. Among these is turmeric, a cultivated plant of medicinal importance in India. Turmeric belongs to a plant family that also comprises various native weeds, including Brahma Thandu. If Turmeric pollen were present in a deposit, it would be indistinguishable from that of uncultivated native species.

Question 1

The phrase “documentary record” (para 2 and 4) primarily refers to -

A. articles, books, and other documents by current historians listing and analysing all the available evidence regarding a particular historical period.

B. government and commercial records, maps, and similar documents produced in the past that recoded conditions and events of that time.

C. documented results of analyses of fossilized pollen.

D. the kinds and qualities of fossilized pollen grains preserved in peats and lake muds.

Question 2

The passage indicates that pollen analyses have provided evidence against which one of the following views?

A. In certain parts of Jammu, cereal grains were not cultivated to any significant extent before the seventh century.

B. Cereal grain cultivation began in Jammu around the fourth century.

C. In certain parts of India, cereal grains have been cultivated continuously since the introduction of the wooden plough.

D. Cereal grain cultivation requires successful tilling of the soil.

Question 3

The passage indicates that before the use of pollen analysis in the study of the history of the Gangetic Valley plains, at least some historians believed which one of the following?

A. Turmeric was not used as a medicinal plant in India until after the sixteenth century.

B. Cereal grain was not cultivated anywhere in India until at least the seventh century.

C. The history of the Gangetic Valley plains during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries was well documented.

D. The beginning of flax cultivation in Jammu may well have occurred before the sixteenth century.

Question 4

Which of the following most accurately describes the relationship between the second paragraph and the final paragraph?

A. The second paragraph describes a view against which the author intends to argue, and the final paragraph states the author՚s argument against that view.

B. The second paragraph proposes a hypothesis for which the final paragraph offers a supporting example.

C. The final paragraph qualifies the claim made in the second paragraph.

D. The final paragraph describes a problem that must be solved before the method advocated in the second paragraph can be considered viable.

Question 5

Which one of the following most accurately expresses the main point of the passage?

A. While pollen evidence can sometimes supplement other sources of historical information, its applicability is severely limited, since it cannot be used to identify plant species.

B. Analysis of fossilized pollen is a useful means of supplementing and in some cases correcting other sources of information regarding changes in the Gangetic Valley plains.

C. Analysis of fossilized pollen has provided new evidence that the cultivation of such crops as cereal grains, flax, and turmeric had a significant impact on the Gangetic Valley plains.

D. Analysis of fossilized pollen has proven to be a valuable tool in the identification of ancient plant species.