AP: Fishing

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IAS Mains Geography Optional 2016 Solutions


  • Vital source of food in countries like Norway, Iceland and Japan.
  • Fishing includes Fish, Seals, Pearls, Crustaceans (lobsters, crabs, prawns, shrimps) , Molluscs (oysters, mussels, cockles, clams) , Sponges and Seaweeds
  • Advanced countries where meat is easily available such as the U. K, USA or Australia tend to consume little fish.
  • Major commercial fishing grounds are located in the cool water, of the northern hemisphere in comparatively high latitudes especially where warm and cold ocean currents meet.

Reasons for Concentration in High Latitudes

  1. Planktons which is readily available in cool shallow waters.
  2. Cool climate
  3. Physical and environmental influences like indented coasts, sheltered inlets and estuarine coasts.
  4. Moderate or large population -Sturgen and Cavier fishes are found in Black and Caspian Sea.

Types of Fishes

1. Salt Water Fish

  1. Pelagic (living at or near the surface) e. g. Herring, Mackerel, Sardines, Pilchards. Anchovies, Menhaden (Caught by drifters, seine nets)
  2. Demersal (found in deep waters) e. g. Cod, Haddock, Halibut, Hake and Tuna (Caught by trawlers)

2. Fresh water Fish e. g. Trout, Perch and Pike

3. Anadromous fish (spawned in the inland rivers, but spend most of their time in sea) , e. g. Salmon

Who Owns the Oceans

  • Territorial waters over which a state has full sovereignty are recognized as extending for 19km from the coast.
  • A further 19km contiguous zone is recognized in which the coastal state can take action against those who break the law.
  • A 320km of Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) , which starts at the same base line as the Territorial waters.
  • States may claim rights to seabed resources for at least 320km and may extend these rights to the edge of the shelf as much 1280km in some cases.

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