AP: Mineral Resources of Europe and CIS

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Mineral and Power Resources


  • CIS: Donetz (Donbas) Ukraine, Moscow Tula Russia, Kuznetsk (kuzbas) Kazakhstan, Karaganda Urals Kazakhstan, Tungus and Lena Basin Siberia,
  • Britain
  • Scottish coalfields- Lanark shire, Fifeshire, Ayrshire, Midlothian
  • Pennine coalfield Northumberland, Durham, Yorkshire, Derbyshire, Nottinghamshire Midland coalfields N. Staffordshire, S. Staffordshire, Warwickshire, Leicestershire Welsh coalfields S. Wales
  • German Rhur Westphalia Aachen Saar Cologne (Lignite) Bavaria (Lignite) Saxony (Lignite)
  • France Pas de Calais Nord Alsace Lorraine
  • Belgium Kempenland coalfields Franco Belgium and coalfields in Sambre Meuse Depression
  • Poland Upper and Lower Silesia
  • Spain Northern Spain, around Oviedo
  • Other countries Erstwhile Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, and Hungary

Hydro-Electirc Projects

1. Dnieper Combined Scheme

2. Russia

  1. Two huge dams at Volgogarad and Kuybyshev (River Volga)
  2. Other dams at Irkutsk Bratsk, Krasnoyarsk, Beloyarsk, Ufa, Kuybyshev

3. Italy Italian Alps and Apennine Streams FRANCE Pyrenees, Central Massive and French Alps, Dams on Saone and Rhone, Grenoble on Isere,

4. Norway

  1. Per capita output of HEP is greatest in the world.
  2. Sharpsborg (Oslo fiord) , Notodden (South of Oslo) , Mo I Rana (Steel Works)

5. Sweden Trollhattan Falls (Gota)

6. Germany Grevenbroich, Innerwerk, Bitterfield

7. Switzerland Rugged, glaciated upland and numerous falls, rapid and lakes in ALPS. Geothermal Energy Iceland, Italy (Larderllo) Tidal Power Ranee Estuary (Brittanny, France)

Iron Ore

  • Krivoi Rog Ukraine
  • Kuzbas (Kustanay) Kazakhastan
  • Angara (E. Siberia) -Ural region (near Magnitogorsk, Russia)
  • Kiruna, Gallivare, Dannemoa, Grangeborg and Kopparberg in Sweden
  • Lorraine, Normandy, Pyrenees and Central Massif in France
  • Bilbao, Santander, Oviedo (Spain)
  • Scunthorpe, Frodingham (Britain)
  • Siegerland (Germany) Copper Ural, Balkhash and Dzhezkazgan in CIS Aluminium Smelting at Invergorgon (Scotland) , Holy island (Wales)
  • Lead Lake Baikal (Russia) , C. Siberia (Russia) . Also found in erstwhile Yugoslavia and Bulgaria


  • Britain and Belgium are important Zinc smelting countries
  • Ireland and Germany also produces zinc


  • Uranium France, Russia Nickel Ural (Russia) Manganese Nikopolo (Russia) , Chaitura (Urals) and Russian Turkestan
  • Chromium Urals (Sarany) in Russia, Kazakhstan, Finland, Albania
  • Tungsten Russia, Portugal, Austria


Great Britain

1. Midland Region

  1. Centered at Birmingham
  2. Power presently comes from thermal electricity and imported oil.

(a) Based on S. Staffordshire coal field Centered at Birmingham, Dudley, Wolver Hampton. These are known for Iron and steel and Glassware

(b) Warwickshire coalfields Coventry Automobile industry.

(c) Leicestershire coal field. Burton on Trent (brewery) , Derby (textiles and Engineering) , Nottingham (Hosiery, Pharmaceuticals and Cigarettes and Tobacco) .

2. North East England (Based on Northumberland and Durham coalfields) New Castle (Shipbuilding) , Darlington (Locomotives)

3. Yorkshire, Nottinghamshire and Derby shire -Bradford and Halifax (Worsted textiles) , Leeds (Garments) , Sheffield (World՚s largest cutlery town, Iron and steel and Engineering)

4. Lancashire Region: Manchester (cotton textile centre of the world) , Liver pool (port) , Birkenhead (Ship Building)

5. Greater London Industrial Region: London (Financial centre) , Thames Estuary (Cement, oil refineries) .

6. Central Scotland: Glasgow (Iron and steel) Port Glasgow (Shipbuilding) Clyde side (Shipbuilding)

7. Belfast Region (Ireland) : Traditionally noted for Shipbuilding and Linen industry

8. South Wales (A classic example of the effect of decline in the importance of coal and changes in industrial locations) : Centered at Cardiff, Swansea, Port Talbot, New Port


1. North East Industrial region: lron and Steel, Textiles, Engineering

  1. Based on Coal fields Nord and Pas De Calais
  2. Dunkirk (Iron and Steel) , Lille (cotton, woolen, linen and synthetic textiles) .

2. Lorraine region

  1. Iron and Steel, Rolling mills and tin plating
  2. Centered at Metz, Nancy, Thionville, Longwy.

3. Greater Paris: very wide range of goods

4. Isolated industrial towns: St. Entienne (Armaments, bridges) , Clemont Ferrand (Tyres) , Lyon (Great silk making city)


  • Ruhr Westphalia Region -Essen and Dortmund (Iron and Steel, Heavy Industries Engineering) , Dusseldorf (Heavy Chemicals) , Gelsenkirchen (Engineering) , Krefeld and Wuppertal (textiles)
  • Middle Rhine Area
    • Frankfurt Railway Engineering, Electrical engineering, Automobile engineering, financial centre
    • Mainz Leather, Brewery
  • East Germany Based on Saxony coalfields and Stassfort salt deposits. R. Elbe provides water transport. -Leipzig (Optical instruments) , Dresden (Porcelain) , Berlin (Engineering, Textiles and Electrical equipments)
  • Other cities of Germany Hamburg (Shipbuilding, Marine Engineering) , Munich (Beer, musical instruments, scientific instrument) , Stuttgart (Automobiles, Optical equipments and watches) , Hanover (Metal and Chemicals) , Achen (Iron and Steel, Engineering)


  • Liege (Iron and Steel, Heavy industries) , Brussels (Textiles, chemicals and paper) , Antwerp (diamond cutting, Shipbuilding, oil refining, petrochemicals) , Ghent (Linen textiles)


  • Major industries are at Esch, Dudelange, Differdange


  • Rotterdam (marine Engineering and Shipbuilding) , Utrecht (Light Machinery) , Eindhoven (Electrical Engineering and Linen) , Arnhem (Rayon, Tin smelting) , Amsterdam (Diamond cutting) , Rotterdam (major port, port industries) Europort (Oil Refineries)


  • Stockholm Stockholm՚s engineering products can be transported by the Gota Canal to Goteborg (premier port and leading shipbuilding centre) -Eskilstuna Sheffield of Sweden (Cutlery and Ornamental goods)


  • Leading industries Marine EngineeringShipbuildingFish canningPulp and paper -MoIRana (Iron and Steel) , Oslo (Pulp mills, Shipyard, Chemical plants, Fish canning) , Bergen and Stavanger (Fishing and Shipping)


  • Centralized at Copenhagen in Zealand
  • Important industries Dairying, Agricultural industries -Aarhus Agricultural industries.


  • Basel and Baden (Engineering industry) , Zurich (Engineering and Textiles) , Jura Towns La Chauxde Fonds, Biel Le Locle (Clocks and Watches) .
  • HEP from the Italian Alps and natural gas exploitation in Emilia and the Po delta has contributed greatly to the industrial needs of the north. -Genoa (Iron and Steel, Chemicals, Textiles, Automobiles Fiat, Lambretta etc.) , Turin (Automobiles, Rail Coaches, Aircraft) , Milan (silk textiles and Engineering works)