Biology Syllabus for BITSAT 2021

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1: Diversity in Living World

  1. Biology-its meaning and relevance to mankind
  2. What is living; Taxonomic categories and aids; Systematics and Binomial system of nomenclature.
  3. Introductory classification of living organisms (Two-kingdom system, Five-kingdom system)
  4. Plant kingdom-Salient features of major groups (Algae to Angiosperms)
  5. Animal kingdom-Salient features of Nonchordates up to phylum, and Chordates up to class level.

2: Cell: The Unit of Life; Structure and Function

  1. Cell wall; Cell membrane; Endomembrane system (ER, Golgi apparatus and Dictyosome, Lysosomes, Vacuoles) Mitochondria; Plastids; Ribosomes; Cytoskeleton; Cilia and Flagella; Centrosome and XXIII Centriole; Nucleus; Microbodies.
  2. Structural differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic, and between plant and animal cells.
  3. Cell cycle (various phases) ; Mitosis; Meiosis.
  4. Biomolecules-Structure and function of Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, and Nucleic acids.
  5. Enzymes-Chemical nature, types, properties and mechanism of action.

3: Genetics and Evolution

  1. 3.1 Mendelian inheritance; Chromosome theory of inheritance; Gene interaction; Incomplete dominance; Co-dominance; Complementary genes; Multiple alleles
  2. 3.2 Linkage and Crossing over; Inheritance patterns of hemophilia and blood groups in humans.
  3. 3.3 DNA-its organization and replication; Transcription and Translation
  4. 3.4 Gene expression and regulation; DNA fingerprinting.
  5. 3.5 Theories and evidences of evolution, including modern Darwinism.

4: Structure and Function-Plants

  1. 4.1 Morphology of a flowering plant; Tissues and tissue systems in plants; Anatomy and function of root, stem (including modifications) , leaf, inflorescence, flower (including position and arrangement of different whorls, placentation) , fruit and seed; Types of fruit; Secondary growth
  2. 4.2 Absorption and movement of water (including diffusion, osmosis and water relations of cell) and of nutrients; Translocation of food; Transpiration and gaseous exchange; Mechanism of stomatal movement.
  3. 4.3 Mineral nutrition-Macro-and micro-nutrients in plants including deficiency disorders; Biological nitrogen fixation mechanism.
  4. 4.4 Photosynthesis-Light reaction, cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation; various pathways of carbon dioxide fixation; Photorespiration; Limiting factors.
  5. 4.5 Respiration-Anaerobic, Fermentation, Aerobic; Glycolysis, TCA cycle; Electron transport system; energy relations.

5: Structure and Function-Animals

  1. Human Physiology-Digestive system-organs, digestion and absorption; Respiratory system-organs, breathing and exchange and transport of gases.
  2. Body fluids and circulation-Blood, lymph, double circulation, regulation of cardiac activity; Hypertension, Coronary artery diseases.
  3. Excretion system-Urine formation, regulation of kidney function
  4. Locomotion and movement-Skeletal system, joints, muscles, types of movement.
  5. Control and co-ordination-Central and peripheral nervous systems, structure and function of neuron, reflex action and sensory reception; Role of various types of endocrine glands; Mechanism of hormone action.

6: Reproduction, Growth and Movement in Plants

  1. Asexual methods of reproduction
  2. Sexual Reproduction-Development of male and female gametophytes; Pollination (Types and agents) ; Fertilization; Development of embryo, endosperm, seed and fruit (including parthenocarpy and elminth) .
  3. Growth and Movement-Growth phases; Types of growth regulators and their role in seed dormancy, germination and movement; XXIV
  4. Apical dominance; Senescence; Abscission; Photo-periodism; Vernalisation
  5. Various types of movements.

7: Reproduction and Development in Humans

  1. Male and female reproductive systems
  2. Menstrual cycle; Gamete production; Fertilisation; Implantation
  3. Embryo development
  4. Pregnancy and parturition
  5. Birth control and contraception.

8: Ecology and Environment

  1. Meaning of ecology, environment, habitat and niche.
  2. Ecological levels of organization (organism to biosphere) ; Characteristics of Species, Population, Biotic Community and Ecosystem; Succession and Climax. Ecosystem-Biotic and abiotic components; Ecological pyramids; Food chain and Food web; 8.3 Energy flow; Major types of ecosystems including agroecosystem.
  3. Ecological adaptations-Structural and physiological features in plants and animals of aquatic and desert habitats.
  4. Biodiversity and Environmental Issues-Meaning, types and conservation strategies (Biosphere reserves, National parks and Sanctuaries) , Air and Water Pollution (sources and major pollutants) ; Global warming and Climate change; Ozone depletion; Noise pollution; Radioactive pollution; Methods of pollution control (including an idea of bioremediation) ; Deforestation; Extinction of species (Hot Spots) .

9: Biology and Human Welfare

  1. Animal husbandry-Livestock, Poultry, Fisheries; Major animal diseases and their control. Pathogens of major communicable diseases of humans caused by fungi, bacteria, viruses, protozoans and elminthes, and their control.
  2. Cancer; AIDS.
  3. Adolescence and drug/alcohol abuse
  4. Basic concepts of immunology.
  5. Plant Breeding and Tissue Culture in crop improvement.

10: Biotechnology and its Applications

  1. Microbes as ideal system for biotechnology
  2. Microbial technology in food processing, industrial production (alcohol, acids, enzymes, antibiotics) , sewage treatment and energy generation.
  3. Steps in recombinant DNA technology-restriction enzymes, NA insertion by vectors and other methods, regeneration of recombinants
  4. Applications of R-DNA technology in human health-Production of Insulin, Vaccines and Growth hormones, Organ transplant, Gene therapy.
  5. Applications in Industry and Agriculture-Production of expensive enzymes, strain improvement to scale up bioprocesses, GM crops by transfer of genes for nitrogen fixation, herbicide-resistance and pest-resistance including Bt crops.

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