India-Central Asia, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Shanghai Co-Operation Organisation, India and SCO

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India-Central Asia

  • India’s presence in Central Asia

  • Member of Conference on Interaction and Confidence Building Measures in Asia (CICA)

    • Only inter-governmental forum in Central Asia that India is a part of

  • Observer in SCO

  • India’s only foreign military base is in Tajikistan

  • TAPI <refer TAPI under energy article>

  • Close link between the peace, security and stability of Central Asia and India

  • India’s interest in Central Asia

    • Strategic, military, and economic

    • Energy

    • Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Kazakhstan can provide oil and gas

    • Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan hold great hydroelectric potential

  • Strategic location

    • Sandwiched by Russia, China, Iran, Pakistan, and Afghanistan

    • India cannot afford to lag behind in this competition for resources

  • Security and stability

    • The region holds Islamic terrorist groups that may find way to India

    • If there is instability in Central Asia, combined with the precarious situation in Afghanistan and Pakistan, it can lead to serious security problems for India

  • Economic cooperation

  • Cultural dialogue

  • India is surrounded by unstable states and if it can cultivate positive and effective relations with its immediate northern neighbours, all the better

  • What can Central Asia gain?

    • Market to diversify their energy supplies

    • A strong nation that can help them balance Chinese, Russian and US pressure

    • Help in progressing their economies beyond just energy supplies, say IT sector and capability building

    • Foreign investment

  • Challenges

    • Lack of efficient surface transportation capabilities and connectivity

  • Way forward

    • Develop the International North-South Corridor

Mongolia

  • Diplomatic relations established in 1955

  • India was the first country outside the Soviet block to establish diplomatic relations with Mongolia

  • Mongolia supports India’s candidature as a permanent member of the UN SC

  • Pratibha Patil visited the country in July 2011

    • Three agreements were signed to expand cooperation in defence, planning and education and media exchanges

    • First Indian presidential visit after a gap of 23 years

  • Cultural links

    • Buddhism

Kazakhstan

  • PM MMS visited Astana in April 2011

  • Three major agreements signed during the 2011 visit

    • Civil nuclear cooperation

    • Between state oil companies on a 25-pc stake for India in a Caspian Sea basin block (Satpayev and Satpayev Vostochni)

    • Agriculture

  • Background

    • Lukewarm relations for a decade

    • After that India invited Pres Nazarbayev to be Chief Guest at the Republic Day celebrations in 2009

    • Strong cultural ties: Raj Kapoor, Nargis, Bollywood at present.

  • Energy ties

    • Caspian basis in rich in oil resources

    • Kzk willing to supply Uranium to India

    • Satpayev oil block

  • Agriculture

    • Agreement signed. Explore possibility of Indian farmers taking over Kazakh farmland on lease.

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