Legal Terms: Censure Motion, Certiorari, Circumstantial Evidence and Coalition

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  • Censure Motion: means a motion of no-confidence in a government or a group in power.

  • Certiorari: a writ to transfer a law suit from a lower court to a higher one.

  • Circumstantial evidence: evidence based on the circumstances of a case and sufficiently strong to establish the guilt.

  • Coalition: combinations of political parties. When two or more parties combine and form a government, it is called a coalition government.

  • Cognizable offence: Offence which can be dealt with by the court.

  • Contempt of Court: disobedience or disregard of the judgement or orders of the court.

  • Convict: one found guilty of a crime and sentenced by a court.

  • Code: a body of classified laws or regulations, e.g. Criminal Procedure Code.

  • Coup d’état: is a violent and sudden change of Government usually by the force of arms.

  • Copy right: the exclusive right of an author in his literary or artistic work. It is vested in the author for a period of fifty years.

  • Court martial: a court of military or naval officers to try persons for breach of military discipline according to military law.

  • C.P.C.: Civil Procedure Code.

  • Cr.P.C.: Criminal Procedure Code.

  • Curfew: an order under which people have to be indoors within certain hours.

  • Decree: The award or decision of a court or arbitrator.

  • Defendant: a person required to answer in a court.

  • Defacto: actually: which actually functions though it may not have any legal sanction.

  • Defamation : to attack the reputation of-slander or libel.

  • Dejure: by right of aw, lawful, rightful.

  • Detenue: a person who has been detained by the State.

  • Division Bench: refes to a Bench of two judges.

  • Double jeopardy: means prosecuting a person more than once for the same offence.

  • Estoppel: a bar to prevent a person from admitting or denying because of statements made by him previously.

  • Exhibit: a legal document presented as proof of the facts.

  • Extradition: delivering a national of another country for trial or offences.

  • Ex.gratia by way of grace: it is used to denote payment or grant made on humanitarian consideration.

  • Ex officio: by virtue of holding any office.

  • Exparte: something done or said by one person in the absence of his opponent.

  • Facsimile: an exact copy of a document.

  • F.I.R.: first information report refers to information relating to the commission of congnizable offence.

  • Forgery: the act of counterfeiting handwriting of another with the intention of defrauding him.

  • Free Legal aid: legal aid provided to the poor at the expense of the government.

  • Full Bench: refers to a bench of three or more judges.

  • Genocide: the wilful extermination of a minority or a religious community or race by mass killing or by passing repressive measures.

  • Habeas Corpus: a writ refers to the right of an arrested person to be produced before the court of law for trial.

  • Indemnity: security against damage or loss.

  • Indictment: document containing charges against a prisoner.

  • Interpol: International Police Headquarters. Lyons (Paris).

  • Inquest: legal or judicial enquiry to find out facts usually concerning the death of a person.

  • In camera: in secret.

  • I.P.C.: Indian Penal Code.

  • Lease: contract by which a lessor, usually in consideration or rent, conveys land or tenement to a lessee for a specified time.

  • Legacy: money or property left to a person by will.

  • Letters Patent: A document under seal of the government authorising an individual or body to do some act or enjoy some privilege.

  • Levirate: means marriage of a woman with her younger brother in law after her husband’s death.

  • Libel: any publication or statement calculated to injure one’s reputation or character.

  • Life imprisonment: means imprisonment for fourteen years.

  • Limited Company: is one in which the shareholders’ responsibility is limited to the extent of their shares in it.

  • Limited liability: liability of the shareholders of a company is limited to the extent of the value of their shares.

  • Locus stand: right to interfere.

  • Mandamus: writ issue by a superior court diecting the State or lower court, to whom it is issued, to perform specified act pertaining to its office.

  • Malafide: with bad faith.

  • Minor: every person domiciled in India and below the age of eighteen years is a minor.

  • Modus operandi: mode of working.

  • Monogamy: the practice or state of being married to only one person at a time.

  • Mortgage: a deed transferring property to creditor as security for the payment of a debt.

  • Moratorium: an order authorising postponement of payment of dues without imposition of punishment.

  • Natural Justice: means justice founded on fairness, equity and good conscience.

  • Naturalisation: is the grant of nationality or citizenship to an alien.

  • Negotiable Instruments: are documents (such as bank notes, cheque, promissory note etc.) which on transfer from one person to another convey the legal right to the property they represent.

  • Notry Public: an official, usually a lawyer, appointed to attest or certify documents and deeds.

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