Non-Communicable Diseases: Coronary Heart Disease and AIDS Disease, General Account

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Non-Communicable Diseases

These diseases do not spread by contact with the diseased person or any other agency.

Coronary Heart Disease

The blood is supplied to the heart muscles by coronary arteries. If these arteries become hardened and narrowed due to deposition of fatty materials, the heart does not receive enough amount of blood and as a result the person feels severe pain in the chest. Sometimes the blood vessels (arteries) may rupture or a clot may be formed in them. This stops the supply of blood to heart and the patient has a heart attack which is also called as coronary thrombosis.

Hypertension

This disease is caused due to emotional stress such as fear, worry, anxiety and excessive joy and nervous tension. In this disease the walls of the arteries contract persistently resulting in the rise of blood pressure. This rise of blood pressure is known as Hyper- tension. Destruction of the arteries of kidneys, condition is known as ‘chronic nephritis’ is a common result of hypertension.

Arteriosclerosis

In this disease, the arteries and arterioles become narrow due to the deposition of cholesterol or fibrous tissue and lose their elasticity. In advanced stages of arterosclerosis the rise in blood pressure may cause the arteries to rupture and let out the blood. If arteries rupture in brain, partial paralysis occurs, and the person is said to have had a ‘cerebral haemorrhage’.

Prevention and Control

  • The diet having low fat should be used.

  • During hypertension, use of salt should be avoided.

  • Use of tea, coffee and alcohol should be avoided.

  • Avoid smoking.

  • The nitro-glycerine tablets relax the coronary arteries and reduce pain in the chest.

  • Anticoagulant like heparin prevents the clotting of blood and promotes its flow.

Cancer

This disease results due to uncontrolled divisions of cells in any part of the body. Due to uncontrolled and repeated mitotic divisions a lump or tumour is formed. Parts of tumour often break off, move through the blood stream of lymph to other parts of the body and start a new or secondary tumour. This stage is known as Metastatia and proves fatal.

Leukaemia

It is a type of blood cancer in which the white blood corpuscles increase in number enormously. This W.B.C. infiltrate into other tissues such as the bone marrow, the spleen, the lymph nodes etc. This disease is mostly found in young children (below five years) and no remedy is known for it.

Danger Signals or Symptoms of Cancer

  • Any wound that does not heal.

  • A thickening or lump in the breast or elsewhere.

  • Difficulty in swallowing.

  • Persistent indigestion.

  • Unusual discharge or bleeding.

  • Persistent cough or harshness.

Allergy

Hypertension or super sensitivity of the body or mind to some chemical or physical agent is known as allergy. The common allergents (Substances or agents which cause allergy) are plant pollents, dust, certain food stuffs, animal hair, heat, cold, drugs, chemicals, certain fabrics and pathogens. These allergents when come in contact with body of an allergic person, physiological disturbances start within the body and many allergic reactions take place.

AIDS Disease

A virus has been identified to be responsible for acquired immuno deficiency syndrome disease known as AIDS which has been termed as the disease of the century. This disease is more dreadful than Cancer.

Causal Organism

AIDS virus.

Mode of Spread

  • through sexual intercourse.

  • through blood transfusion.

  • through contaminated injection needles.

General Account

In the host, virus attacks W.B.C. which is responsible for immunity. The rate at which virus multiplies in W.B.C. of host is thousand times higher than that of a virus. As a result of fast multiplication, the immunity system of the body (due to W.B.C.) is divested. Such persons become highly susceptible to various types of pathogens due to decrease of immunity.

Symptoms

  • Damage to brain.

  • Loss of memory.

  • He ability to speak and think is impaired.

Till today no suitable drug is known for treatment of the disease. No vaccine has been developed so far to prevent the disease. Thus, it is a serious threat to life for years to come.

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