Vijayanagar, Bahami, Gujarat and Mughals-Babur and Humayun

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Vijayanagar

  • Harihara and Bukka – 1336

  • Italian traveller Nicolo Conti visited Vijayanagar in 1420

  • After this dynasty ended, Krishna Deva Raya founded the Tuvalu dynasty

  • 1565: Battle of Talikota (at Banihatta) aka Battle of Rakshasa Tangadi

    • Vijayanagar vs Deccan Sultans

    • Ended the Vijayanagar empire.

Bahami

  • Alauddin Hasan – 1347 (aka Hasan Gangu)

  • Bahmani ruler Firuz Shah married the daughter of Vijayanagar king Deva Rai I

  • Firuz Shah Bahmani

    • Wanted to make Deccan a cultural centre

    • Inducted Hindus on a large scale

    • Built an observatory near Daulatabad

  • Mahmud Gawan was an important prime minister

Gujarat

  • Ahmed Shah

    • Imposed jizyah

  • Mahmud Begarha

Mughals - Babur & Humayun

  • Ibrahim Lodi succeeded Sikandar Lodi in 1517

  • Daulat Khan Lodi and Rana Sanga invited Babur to displace Ibrahim Lodi in India

  • 1526: Battle of Panipat

  • Gunpowder was used in this battle

  • 1527: Battle of Khanwa between Rana Sanga and Babur

  • Humayun succeeded Babur in 1530

  • He built a new city at Delhi: Dinpanah

  • Built Purana Qila

  • 1539: Battle of Chausa – Sher Shah def Humayun

  • 1540: Battle of Kanauj – Sher Shah def Humayun

  • 1555: Humayun recovered Delhi

  • Died after falling from the first floor of his library

Sher Shah

  • 1540: defeated Humayun at Kanauj

  • 1544: Sher Shah vs Rajputs at the battle of Samel

  • Abbas Khan Sarwani – historian of Sher Shah

  • GT Road from Indus to Sonargaon in Bengal

  • Built a road from Agra to Jodhpur and Chittor, from Lahore to Multan

  • Built sarais

  • Dictum of Shaikh Nazami: “If a merchant should die in your country it is a perfidy to lay hands on his property”. Local village headmen and zamindars were made responsible for any loss that the merchant suffered on the roads.

  • Currency reforms; weights and measures

  • Chehra and dagh system

  • Tomb at Sasaram

  • Malik Md Jaisi during his time

  • Jizyah continued to be implemented.

  • Sher Shah was succeeded by his son Islam Shah in 1545

Mughals

Akbar

  • Born at Amarkot in 1542

  • 1556: Second Battle of Panipat – vs Hemu

  • Zabti system of land revenue assessment aka Todar Mal’s bandobast

  • Other land revenue systems: dahsala, batai, ghalla-bakhshi, nasaq

  • Land

    • Polaj – in cultivation every year

    • Parati (fallow) – uncultivated polaj

    • Chachar – fallow for two to three years

    • Banjar – fallow for more than three years

  • Mansabdari system – 1577

  • 1576: Battle of Haldighati with Rana Pratap

  • Birbal was killed in a battle with Afghans

Jahangir (1605-27)

Clash between Sikhs and Mughals began with the imprisonment and death of Guru Arjun by Jahangir on a charge of helping rebel prince, Khusrau

Aurganzeb

  • Issued Zawabit: secular decrees

  • Discontinued the Parsi festival Nauroz

  • Discontinued Jharokha Darshan

  • Reimposed Jizyah in 1679; suspended it in 1705

Deccan

  • Ahmednagar was captured by the Mughals in 1600. Chand Bibi was defeated.

  • Malik Amber of Berar was an obstacle. So was Ibrahim Adil Shah of Bijapur

  • Ibrahim Adil Shah II

    • Aka Abla Baba and Jagat Guru

    • Book – Kitab-i-Nauras on Music

    • New Capital: Nauraspur

    • Gol Gumbaj – his mausoleum

    • Ibrahim Rauza

  • Golconda: Md Quli Qutub Shah

    • Char Minar

Sikhs

  • Guru Teg Bahadur was beheaded by Aurangzeb

  • 1699: Khalsa was established by Guru Gobind Singh

Marathas

  • 1665: Treaty of Purandar – between Shivaji and Jai Singh (on behalf of Aurangzeb)

  • 1666: Shivaji escaped from Azeb’s detention

  • 1674: Shivaji crowned himself at Raigarh

  • Assumed the title of ‘Haindava Dharmoddharak’

  • Died in 1680.

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