Arts, Rajasthani Art Schools, Manjusha Art, Handicrafts, Sandpainting, Other Fine Arts

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Different schools of art compared

Table 1

Table of Different Schools of Art Compared
Table of Different schools of art compared

Mughal

Pahari

Rajasthani/Rajput

Madhubani/Mithila

Manjusha/Angika

Tanjore

Origin

Earlier Persian blend. Became Indian under Akbar.

Originated in the sub-Himalayan kingdoms of 19th century.

Early 16th century. Various sub-schools existed

Done traditionally by the women in the villages near the town of Madhubani. It originated as floor and wall paintings.

Essentially a folk tradition

17th century under the patronage of Tanjore’s Maratha rulers

Type

Mostly in miniature form

Mostly done in miniature form

Themes

Document of life at the Mughal court, battles, hunt, arrival of embassies, festivities

Portrait paintings developed under Jahangir

Love of man for woman. Symbolised by Krishna and Radha

Strongly influenced by the contemporary literary and musical forms, and draw upon their motifs

(details below)

Nature and Hindu religious motifs

Usually portrayed deities. Vishnu, Shiva and Krishna

Exceptional Point

Was originally practiced by Brahmins and Kayasthas. Later SC women also adopted it. But the themes of the two are different. While higher castes depicted mythological themes, SCs experimented with day-to-day scenes.

Characteristics

Realism is the keynote of this style

Artists had made contacts with Western art. Influence can be seen.

Bold and intense – Basohli

Delicate and lyrical; Tones subdued and lines exquisitely fine - Kangra

Decorate in their composition and colour scheme

Landscape lacks the naturalism of the Mughal school

Two dimensional Imagery. Colours derived from plants.

No space is left empty. Gaps are filled by painting flowers, plants animals and even geometric shapes.

Snakes are a prominent feature

Artists adhered strictly to iconography as these paintings were made for ritual and worship and not for display as is mostly the case today.

Technique

Used wider canvas

Traditionally done as murals on mud walls. Now is also done one cloth, paper and canvas

Made on jackwood pasted with unbleached cloth to which a mixture of limestone, chalk powder, gum and honey are applied in layers on a sketch of the icon. Extra coats given to raise some parts of the painting. Jewellery etc are put.

Major Artists

Basawan, Daswanth, Kesudasa, Mansur

Jagdamba Devi, Mahasundari Devi

Major Works

Akbarnama illustrations; rare birds and animals – Falcon (CS Museum, Bombay), Red Blossoms – floral painting

Jodhpur and Nagaur paintings.

Major schools

Basohli, Guler, Kangra

Malwa, Mewar (Ragamala paintings), Marwar, Kishangarh, Jaipur, Bundi, Kotah

Bharni style, Kachni style

Patrons

Akbar, Jahangir

Raja Kripal Singh (Basoli)

Sarabhiji 2, Shivaji 2, Mummadi Krishnaraja Wodeyar

Rajasthani Art Schools

Mewar (Ragamala)

  • Themes from the life of Krishna and his frolic with the Gopi’s heroes and heroines of Hindi poetry.

  • Scenes from Bhagavata and Ramayana

  • Landscape lacks the naturalism of the Mughal school

    Inage of Rajasthani Art Schools

    Inage of Rajasthani Art Schools

Marwar

  • Genuine Rajput style evolved under this school

  • Equestrian portraits of the royal house and the nobility.

  • Show bold types of expression with broad, fish eyes in human faces

  • This school is essentially Hindu

Jaipur

Raslila was painted. It became an earthly erotic amusement.

Manjusha Art

  • Manjusha are temple shaped boxes containing eight pillars

  • The boxes often contain the paintings of gods, goddesses and other characters

  • The boxes are used in Bihari Puja

  • This is practiced in the Bhagalpur region of Bihar

Image of Manjusha Art

Image of Manjusha Art

Handicrafts

  • Channapatna toys

  • Wooden toys from Karnataka

  • Nirmal Toys

  • Wooden toys made in the town of Nirmal in Adilabad district

  • Tanjore doll

  • Bobblehead made of terracotta

HHandicrafts rafts

Handicrafts

Sandpainting

Kolam

  • Drawn using rice powder by female members in front of their home

  • Mainly in South India

Rangoli

  • North India Using sand colours, flour or flowers

Other Fine Arts

  • Mehandi

  • Pichhwai

    • Intricate paintings that portray Lord Krishna

    • Exist in the town of Nathdwara in Rajasthan

  • Tarakashi

    • A type of metalwork from Cuttack

Indian Art Awards

Image of Indian Art Awards

Image of Indian Art Awards

  • Kalaimamani

    • By Tamil Nadu Eyal Isai Nataka Manram

  • Kalidas Samman

    • Presented by the MP govt

  • Sangeet, Natak Akademi Award

  • Sangeet, Natak Akademi Fellowship

  • Shilp Guru

    • By GOI to a master craftsperson. Started in 2002.

  • Tulsi Samman

    • By MP Govt in fields of art, theatre, dance and music.

  • Varnashilpi Venkatappa Award

    • By Karnataka govt for excellence in painting

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