General Terminology: Socialistic Pattern of Society and Tax, Legal Terms

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General Terminology

  • Socialistic Pattern of Society: even-distribution of economic power or reduction of inequalities in income and wealth in a country. The Resolution for a “Socialistic Pattern of Society” was adopted at the Avadi Session of the Indian National Congress.

  • Tax: A tax is a compulsory payment made by a person or a body or persons to a public authority for which there is no quid pro quo. It is an important source of revenue for the modern governments. Sales tax, in India is a case in point.

  • Territorial Waters: Although attempts have been made to codify international law on territorial waters, it has not been found possible to enforce a universally acceptable limit.

  • Third World: The world is divided into (i) the Western bloc led by the U.S.A., the U.K., West Germany, Japan etc., (ii) the Communist bloc led by the Soviet Union including the East European countries, and (iii) the Third World which generally means the developing countries.

  • Time Capsule : The term is used to describe metallic cylinders filled with memorabilia and buried deep in the earth so that after a few thousand years, if somebody discovers such a capsule, he should be reminded of what life and times were like when the ‘time capsule’ had been initially buries.

  • Trade Mark: a distinctive mark or sign, or a name given to a product which is registered in order to safeguard the manufacturer’s rights. Trade mark cannot be copied by anyone under the law.

  • Two - nation Theory: Before India had won freedom, leaders of the Muslim League (which was one of the important political parties in India) put forward the theory that the Hindus and the Muslims living in India constituted two separate nations with different religious, cultural and linguistic patterns, and that India should, therefore, be divided in two parts, one of which should be a separate Muslim state to be named Pakistan. This thesis came to be described as the ‘two-nation’ theory.

  • Value-Added Tax (VAT): A tax on the value added is termed VAT. The principle governing this tax is that the person paying for goods or services pays a tax thereon and also collects tax on his sales. The net effect of this tax is that the tax paid is credited against tax collected and only the balance is payable to the taxing authority.

  • Veto: right of executive head to refuse to approve any legislation.

  • Wealth-tax: It is a tax levied on wealth possessed by an individual or by a Hindu Undivided Family in excess of certain prescribed limits. The object is to keep even- distribution of wealth in society.

  • White revolution refers to vast production of milk achieved in India. Operation Flood-II programme has been set up for the expansion of the existing plants. A vast network of Milk producers Co-operative Societies is operating under a three-tier system, milk unions at district level and primary milk societies at the village level.

  • Zero-base Budgeting: It is improvement over the traditional budgeting and not a substitute of it. It examines critically, regularly and systematically the assumptions of the traditional budget. The budgeted items are treated each year at the Zero-base level as if it were non-existent in the past. Its input is related to the output to decide upon its inclusion in or exclusion from the annual budget.

  • Accord: an informal agreement as between nations or mutual agreement.

  • Accused: a person formally charged with committing a crime.

  • Adjournment Motion: a motion moved by a member in a legislature when it is desired to draw the attention of the executive to a matter of urgent public importance or interest.

  • Administrative Law: The rules and regulations framed by the executive.

  • Adult Suffrage: is the right of voting in political elections granted to every adult person male or female without distinction of caste, creed, colour or holding of any property or qualification etc.

  • Advalorem: means according to the value. It is calculated according to value. A duty the amount of which depends upon the value of the property taxed is called an advalorem duty.

  • Affidavit: a statement on oath for use as evidence in judicial process.

  • Alibi: elsewhere a legal plea that the accused was not presented at the time and place of occurrence.

  • All Rights Reserved: Printed intimation in any book or literacy work notifying that the owner of the copy right was legally protected his rights against infringement.

  • Amnesty: a general pardon that is granted to the prisoners generally during a major national celebration.

  • Anticipatory bail: it is a bail granted by a court to a person who apprehends that he might be arrested for non-bailable offences.

  • Approval: an accomplice giving evidence against his companions.

  • Arbitration: settlement of a dispute by someone chosen to hear both sides and come to a decision.

  • Award: the decision of a law court or arbitrator.

  • Amicus Curiae: He is a member of the Bar or other stand-by who informs the court when it is doubtful or mistaken of any fact or decided case.

  • Bail: the security given to affect the release of one arrested or imprisoned, on the understanding that he shall appear for trial at a fixed time and place.

  • Bicameral: having or consisting of two legislative chambers.

  • Bigamy: an offence a husband or wife marrying again during the life of the spouse.

  • Bonafide: in good faith

  • Bye Laws: are special rules and regulations made by any company or corporation for carrying on its affairs, but they must neither contrivance the powers conferred by the parliament nor the laws of the land.

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