Amendments to the Constitution, Official Books and Papers, History of India, The Indus Valley Civilisation

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Amendments to the Constitution

The Constitution (Seventy-Fourth Amendment) Act, 1993

A new part IX-A relating to the Municipalities has been incorporated in the Constitution to provide, among other things, constitution of three types of Municipalities, i.e., 'Nagar Panchayat' for areas in transition from a rural area to urban area, Municipal Councils for smaller urban area, and 'Municipal Corporations' for larger urban areas.

The Constitution (Seventy-Eighth Amendment) Act, 1995

  • Article 31B of the Constitution confers on the enactment included in the Ninth Schedule to the Constitution, immunity from legal challenge of the ground that it violates the fundamental rights enshrined in Part III of the Constitution.

  • The Schedule consists of list of laws enacted by the central governments and various state governments which, inter alia, affect rights and interest in property including land.

The Constitution (79Th Amendment Act) 2000

It extends reservation to SCs & STs in Lok Sabha and State Legislative Assemblies for 10 years beyond 2000.

The Eightieth Amendment, 2000

It relates to the revenue sharing between the Centre and the States whereby States' over-all share was increased to 29% as per the Tenth Finance Commission's recommendation.

The Eighty First Amendments, 2000

It relates to carrying forward backlog vacancies of SCs and STs. The Eighty Second Amendment, 2000: It relates to relaxation in qualifying marks and reservation of posts in super speciality course in Medical and Engg. etc., for SCs and STs.

The Eighty Third Amendments, 2000

It exempts Arunachal Pradesh from reserving seats for scheduled castes in Panchayat Raj institutions as there are no Scheduled Castes.

The Eighty Fourth Amendments, 2000

It relates to the creation of new states of Chhattisgarh, Uttaranchal and Jharkhand.

The Eighty Fifth Amendment, 2000

It provides for the benefit of reservation in promotions in government service to the members of Scheduled Castes (SC)/ Scheduled Tribes (ST).

The Eighty Ninth Amendments, 2000

The bill passed by Parliament on May, 2000, provides for the transfer of 25% share of net tax proceeds to States for a five- year period and seeks to bring several Central taxes and duties like Corporation Tax and Customs Duty at par with personal income-tax for the purpose of sharing with the States.

The Ninety Third Amendments, 2001

Union Cabinet approved the Constitution (93rd Amendment) Bill, 2001 on 20th September 2001. It seeks to provide free and compulsory education for the children aged 6 to 14 across the country.

The Ninety Sixth Amendments, 2003

The Lok Sabha unanimously approved it on 6th May 2003. It seeks to provide for readjustment of electoral constituencies, including those reserved for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes on the basis of the population census for the year 2001 without affecting the number of seats allocated to States in the Legislative bodies.

Official Books and Papers

  • Blue Book: Official report of the Government of U.K.

  • White Paper: Short Pamphlet giving authoritative recital of facts given by the Government.

  • Red Book: Book banished in a country.

  • Green Book: Official Publications of Italy and Iran.

  • Grey Book: Official Publications of Japan and Belgium.

  • Orange Book: Official Publications of Netherlands.

  • White Book: Official Publications of Germany, China and Portugal.

  • Yellow Book: Official Publications of France.

History of India

  • History of India—Dates and events relating to Indus valley Civilization, Vedic, Aryan and Sangam age, Maurya Dynasty, Buddhism and Jainism, Guptas and Vardhanas, Pallavas, Cholas and Pandias, Sultanate and Mughal Period, Advent of European powers specially the British and other related, topics.

  • The name “India” is derived from Sindhu (Indus) the name of the great river in the North-West.

The Indus Valley Civilisation

  • The approximate period of Indus Valley Civilisation appears to have flourished between 2000 to 1700 B.C. The first known civilisation in India is called the Indus Valley Civilisation because the important sites which were excavated first are located in the valley of Indus. The civilisation appears to have spread over Punjab, Sindh, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Baluchistan.

  • The most significant feature of the Indus Valley Civilisation is burnt brick buildings. The “Great Bath” was found in Mohenjo-Daro. Mohenjo-Daro is also known as “Mound of the Dead”. The Indus people were probably ruled by merchants. The script used by the Indus Valley people has not yet been deciphered. The first metal to be discovered and used for making tools was copper. Iron was not known to the people of Indus Valley Civilisation. Rice cultivation is associated with the Harappa site of Lothal.

  • Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa are not in India. According to the historians, there were close commercial and cultural contacts between Indus Valley and the Sumerian Civilisation. The Indus Valley people had not learnt to domesticate horses but those who lived in the Vedic age did make use of the horse.

  • Wheat was the staple food of the Indus people. The Indus Valley people worshipped Pasupathi. The Indus Valley people venerated the bull. It was non-Aryan because it had a pictographic script.

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