Ranjit Singh, Robert Clive, Robert Walpole and Roosevelt, F. D.

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Ranjit Singh

His title Sher-e-Punjab (Lion of Punjab) . He united all the Sikhs to form into a powerful Sikh State in 1783 AD. He was a successful administrator and organised the central and provincial administration. He reformed the revenue and provincial systems.

Robert Clive (1725 - 1774)

He came to India as a clerk in the East India Company. He showed such remarkable military genius that he became Commander-in-Chief. He defeated Siraj-ud-Daulah supported by the French in the Battle of Plessey in 1757. Returned to England in 1760; his later years were marked by mental disturbance and ultimately, he committed suicide.

Robert Walpole

He was opposed to war and his policy of peace gave England a much-needed rest from war and led the country to economic prosperity during his 21 years of office as first Prime Minister of England.

Roosevelt, F. D

The only American to be elected four times to the highest office in the United States. During his president ship, America entered World War II and titles the scales in favour of the allies. His name is also remembered for his New Deala Reform in America. President Roosevelt defined the “four essential human freedoms” as (1) Freedom of speech and expression, (2) Freedom to worship God in one՚s own way, (3) Freedom from want, (4) Freedom from fear.

Salim Ali

The eminent Ornithologist known as “the Birdman of India” watched birds for most of his life is a winner of several international and national honours including Padma Vibhushan in 1976.


Samudragupta one of the oldest and most powerful of Hindu Kings. He was a great general and had passion for war. He is called the Indian Napoleon by historians. He conquered a very large part of India. He was also an accomplished scholar, poet and musician. He got that title of “Kaviraja” . In commemoration of his brilliant conquests, Samudragupta celebrated the Ashwamedha Yajna (horse sacrifice) and assumed the title of Maharajadhiraja. He was a skilled musician and an expert player of Veena. He also patronised poets and chief among them was Harisena, his court poet. Harisena՚s poem in Sanskrit inscribed on a pillar of Asoka which stands at Allahabad is the chief source of information of his reign.


Sankara was born at Kaladi in Kerala in 1788. He learnt the four Vedas. He preached the basic ideas of the Vedas, Upanishads and Bhagvat Gita. He preached the philosophy of Advaita. He calls God “The Paramathma” . The soul in our body is called “Jeevathma” . The body is the temple where jeevathma lives. Hence the body should be kept pure. He taught ‘Mukti’ , a stage when Jeevathma (man) realises the Paramathma (God) within himself. He founded mutts to propagate the philosophy of Advaita.

Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel

Sardar Patel was the first Deputy Prime Minister of India. He is called the “Iron man of India” , “Bismarck of India” who played a unique part in the unification of India. He was responsible for the annexation of Princely States to Indian Union. The two enclaves Dadra and Nagar Haveli which were under the Portuguese domination were merged in the Indian Union on 17, August 1961. In Gujarat a conflict developed between the peasantry and the British Government when the latter attempted to increase Revenue. Vallabhbhai Patel took up the cause of the peasants and the struggle was known as the Bardoli Satyagraha. The struggle met with a considerable success. It was because of this successful agitation that Vallabhbhai Patel came to be called “Sardar” .

Mrs. Sarojini Naidu

Gifted Indian poetess of English language who came to be known as “Nightingale of India” and also “Indian Torudatt” . She took part in India՚s freedom struggle and was the second woman President of Indian National Congress (Mrs. Annie Besant was the First woman President of Indian National Congress) . In free India she became the first woman Governor of an Indian State (Uttar Pradesh) . Her outstanding works are “The Golden Threshold” , “The Broken Wing” , “The Bird of Time” , “The Sceptred Flute” , “The Song of India” etc.

Satya Murti

He was an eminent freedom fighter and an important leader of the Indian National Congress. He took a leading part in the Civil Disobedience Movement (1930) and in the Quit India Movement (1942) . He was arrested and imprisoned four times and died on March 28,1943 in captivity.

Savarkar, V. D

He was the founder of Abinava Bharatha, secret society of revolutionaries. It preached the gospel of freedom. His book “Indian War of Independence” in 1906 at London about the great uprising of 1857 helped both to put the record straight and infuse a spirit of nationalism and rebellion among the youth of the country.

Sawai Jai Singh II

Founder of Jaipur City (called Rose Pink City) was an astronomer King. The king had got constructed huge stone observatories (Janter Mantars) for astronomical observations in various parts of Northern India including Delhi and Jaipur. His 500th Birth Anniversary was celebrated on November 3,1989.

Shah Jahan

He was the most magnificent of the Mughal emperors. His reign was the golden age of Mughal architecture. He built Taj Mahal, a magnificent marble tomb in memory of his wife Mumtaz. Taj Mahal is at Agra. The pearl mosque, Red Fort, Jama- Masjid, Shalimar Gardens, Jehangir՚s Tomb etc. , are beautiful work constructed by him. He is therefore called the “Engineer King” . The Peacock Throne built by him was taken away by Nadir Shah to Iran.

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