Concepts In Science Technology YouTube Lecture Handouts

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Watch Video Lecture on YouTube: 20 Key GS Concepts in Science & Technology: Most Important "In News" Topic!

20 Key GS Concepts in Science & Technology: Most Important "In News" Topic!

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Science and Technology Key Concepts

Einstein Chwolson Ring

  • Gravity bends space

  • Light will follow curvature of space (similar to lens bending the light)

AMOLED Display

  • Active-matrix organic light-emitting diode

  • Used in mobile devices and televisions

  • OLED - thin-film-display technology - organic compounds

  • Low-power, low-cost and large-size applications

  • Generate light (luminescence) upon electrical activation that have been deposited or integrated onto a thin-film-transistor (TFT) array - series of switches to control the current flowing to each individual pixel

Light –Fidelity (LI-Fi)

  • Uses light waves rather RF to carry data

  • LED bulb functions as a router & is connected to the Internet

  • Unlicensed and free to use

  • High data speed due to low interference

  • Double benefit of access to light & internet

  • Doesn’t interfere with electronic circuitry

  • Works under water

  • Data density 1000 times of Wi-Fi

  • Internet data flows in via device into bulb & is carried by light waves

  • Light waves falls on dongle connected to the computer

Low Temperature Thermal Desalination (LTTD)

  • When there is difference in temperature at different sea levels

  • If pressure is less, water evaporates at less than its normal temperature

  • Surface temperature of sea water is warmer than deep sea water

  • Surface water is collected & vacuum is created over it to evaporate

  • When evaporated vapor passes over cold water it gets condensed & water is distilled

  • Less ecological and environmental cost

Crystallography

  • Find arrangement of atoms in the crystalline solids

  • 2012: UN recognized importance of science of crystallography

  • 2014: International Year of Crystallography

  • X-ray crystallography used to determine structure of large biomolecules such as proteins

  • Uses X-ray, neutron, and electron diffraction techniques to identify and characterize solid materials

Image of Crystallography

Image of Crystallography

Spintronics

  • Spin transport electronics or spin electronics or Flextronics

  • Emerging technology uses intrinsic electron spin and associated magnetic moment along with fundamental electronic charge

  • Spins are manipulated by magnetic & electrical fields

HEVC

  • High Efficiency Video Coding

  • Video compression standard

  • Successor to H.264/MPEG-4 AVC (Advanced Video Coding)

  • First version completed and published in early 2013

  • Second version completed and published in 2014

  • 2nd version - supporting enhanced video formats, scalable coding extensions, and multi-view extensions

Micro Plastics

  • Small plastic particles in the environment

  • Smaller than 1 mm or 5 mm

  • Common use of 333 μm mesh neuston nets for field sampling (sample water volume).

  • However, scientifically, their integral impact on wildlife and human health is not well established.

Doppler Radar

  • In News: 6th Doppler radar on East Coast

  • Other locations on East Coast: Chennai, Kolkata, Machilipatanam, Visakhapatnam and Paradip

  • Eastern coast prone to cyclones & will boost weather forecasting system

  • Built by ISRO and BHEL

  • Doppler Principle: When source for signals and observer are in relative motion - change in frequency (wavelength) is observed by observer

  • When source and observer move closer, frequency increases

Bio-Batteries

  • Eco-friendly batteries

  • Generate electricity by renewable source like Sugar, glucose etc.

  • Final products are not a waste

  • Non-flammable and non-toxic

  • Ability to instant recharge and long backup

Image of Mechanism of Bio Battery

Image of Mechanism of Bio Battery

NPL Syncs Leap Second with Indian Time

  • National Physical Laboratory added leap second

  • To compensate slowdown of earth’s rotation

  • Every day 2000th of second is less

  • Every 500 days, 1 second is added to international atomic time

  • If clocks not updated it can led to failure of military systems, aircraft collision and error in financial markets

Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal Device (FLCD)

  • New generation display device like LCD

  • Has Ferro dielectric liquid crystal – with electricity gets magnetized

  • Fast switching time

  • Low dot pitch which results in a high resolution

  • Greater viewing angle

  • Better picture and thinner interface

  • Cheaper to run on electricity

Nanodots

  • Uses properties of quantum dots to localize magnetic or electrical fields at very small scales

  • Used in high-density in formation storage, energy storage & LED

  • Magnetic nan odots for future information storage

  • Store over 100 times more data than today’s hard drives

  • Tiny magnets which can switch polarity to represent a binary digit

Double Fertilization

  • In flowering plants (angiosperms)

  • Female gametophyte (mega gametophyte or embryo sac) joins with two male gametes (sperm)

Image of Double Fertilization

Image of Double Fertilization

Genome Sequencing

  • Laboratory process that determines complete DNA sequence of an organism's genome at a single time

  • Sequence organism's chromosomal DNA & DNA in mitochondria

Noise Net

  • Controlled air around aircraft is filled with acoustic noise

  • Makes area near aircraft much riskier for birds

  • Reduce number of birds near aircrafts by 80%

  • Saves birds from collision

CRISPR-Cas9

  • Genome editing tool

  • Faster, cheaper and more accurate

  • Simplest, versatile & most precise

  • 2 molecules that change into DNA

  • Enzyme Cas9 - pair of ‘molecular scissors’ - cut 2 strands of DNA at a specific location

  • guide RNA (gRNA): RNA sequence within longer RNA scaffold. Scaffold binds and ‘guides’ Cas9 to the right part of the genome

Mutation caused by the repair

Enzyme Cas9- Mutation

HVDC

  • High-voltage direct current (HVDC)

  • Electric power transmission system

  • Power super highway & electrical super highway

  • Uses direct current (DC)

  • Less expensive & lower electrical losses

Image of HVDC

Image of HVDC

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