Evolution: Major Tributaries: Satluj, Beas, Ravi, Chenab, Jhelum and the Ganga System

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Evolution

  • Geologists believe that a mighty river called Shivalik or Indo-Brahma traversed the entire length of the Himalayas some 5-24 million years ago. Over time this got dismembered into the present three major river systems.

  • The Indus System

  • Indus river originates from a glacier near Bokhar Chu in Tibet in the Kailash Mountain range. Known as Singi Khamban (Lion’s mouth) in Tibet. It forms a spectacular gorge near Gilgit in J&K. Enters Pakistan near Chillar in the Dardistan region. Flows only through the Leh distt of J&K.

  • Smaller tributaries: Shyok, Gilgit, Zaskar, Nubra, Hunza, Shigar, Gasting, Dras. On right bank: Kabul river, Khurram, Tochi, Gomal, Viboa and hte Sangar.

Major tributaries: Satluj, Beas, Ravi, Chenab, Jhelum

Major Tributaries: Satluj, Beas, Ravi, Chenab, Jhelum
Major tributaries: Satluj, Beas, Ravi, Chenab, Jhelum

Jhelum

Origin: Verinag at foot of Pir Pinjal.

Flows through Srinagar and the Wular lake. Joins Chenab near Jhang in Pakistan

Chenab

Origin: Two streams (Chandra and Bhaga) which join at Tandi near Keylong in HP.

Largest tributary of Indus. Aka Chandrabhaga. Flows for 1180 KM before entering Pakistan

Ravi

Origin: Kullu hills of HP near Rohtang Pass. Enters Pakistan and joins Chenab near Sarai Sidhu

Beas

Origin: Beas Kund near Rohtang pass.

Forms gorges at Kati and Largi in the Dhaoladhar range. Meets Satluj near Harike.

Satluj

Origin: Rakas lake near Mansarowar in Tibet. Known as Langchen Khambab in Tibet.

Enters India at Ropar. Antecedent river. Bhakra Nangal Project is on this river.

The Ganga System

It is the largest river system in India.

Ganga rises in the Gangotri glacier near Gaumukh in the Uttarkashi district. Here it is known as the Bhagirathi. At Devprayag, Bhagirathi meets Alaknanda and is known as Ganga hereafter.

Panchprayag

Panchprayag
Panchprayag

Vishnu Ganga

Joshimath

Dhauli and Vishnu Ganga meet to form Alaknanda

Alaknanda

Origin: Satopanth glacier above Badrinath. Consists of Dhauli and Vishnu Ganga.

Yamuna

Origin: Yamnotri glacier on Banderpunch range. Joins Ganga at Prayag (Allahabad).

RBT: Chambal, Sind, Betwa, Ken

LBT: Hindan, Rind, Sengar, Varuna.

Agra canal

Chambal

Origin: Mhow in Malwa plateau.

Gandhi Sagar dam, Rana Pratap Sagar dam and Jawahar Sagar dam.

Famour for Chambal ravines.

Gandak

Origin: In Nepal between Dhaulgiri and Mt. Everest. Enters Ganga plain in Champaran and joins Ganga at Sonpur near Patna.

Two streams: Kaliganfak and Trishulganga.

Ghaghra

Origin: Glaciers of Mapchachungo

Tributaries: Tila, Seti and Beri

Deep gorge at Shishpani

Sarda (Kali) joint it and meet Ganga at Chhapra.

Kosi

Origin: North of Mt. Everest in Tibet.

Tributaries: Son Kosi, Tamur Kosi, Arun

Changes course often. Sorrow of Bihar.

  • Ganga enters the plains at Haridwar.

  • Left Bank tributaries (LBT): Ramganga, Gomati, Ghaghara, Gandak, Kosi and Mahananda.

  • Right Bank tributaries (RBT): Son

  • Discharges into Bay of Bengal near Sagar island.

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