Simon Commission, Nehru Report, Poorna Swaraj and Civil Disobedience Movement

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NCERT Chapter 13

Emergence of Socialism in the 1920s in the Nationalist Ranks

  • JL Nehru and SC Bose

  • Raised the question of internal class oppression by capitalists and landlords

  • MN Roy became the first Indian to be elected to the leadership of the Communist International

  • Muzaffer Ahmed and SA Dange were tried in the Kanpur Conspiracy Case

  • 1925: Communist Party of India was formed

  • All India Trade Union Congress

  • Various Strikes: Bombay textile mills, Jamshedpur, Kharagpur

Bardoli Satyagraha (1928)

Peasants under the leadership of Sardar Patel organized no tax campaign

Indian Youth Were Becoming Active

First All Bengal Conference of Students held in 1928 presided by JL Nehru

Hindustan Republican Association: 1924

  • Kakori Conspiracy Case (1925)

  • Four, including Ram Prasad Bismil and Ashfaqulla Khan were hanged.

Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (1928)

  • On 17th December 1928, Bhagat Singh, Azad and Rajguru assassinated Saunders

  • Bhagat Singh and BK Dutt threw bomb in the Central Legislative Assembly on 8 April 1929 to let the people know of their changed political objectives

Chittagong Armoury Raid: 1030, Surya Sen

Participation of young women

Simon Commission (1927)

  • Indian Statutory Commission chaired by Simon to go into the question of further constitutional reform

  • All its seven members were Englishmen. Clement Attlee was one of the members.

  • Lord Birkinhead was the secretary of state at that time

  • At its Madras session in 1927 INC decided to boycott the commission “at every stage and in every form”

    • ML and Hindu Mahasabha supported Congress

Nehru Report, 1928

  • Dominion status

  • Contained Bill of Rights

  • No state religion

  • Federal form

  • Linguistically determined provinces

  • No separate electorates

  • All Party Convention, held at Calcutta in 1928, failed to pass the report

  • Muslim league rejected the proposals of the report

  • Jinnah drafted his fourteen points

  • Hindu Mahasabha and Sikh League also objected

Poorna Swaraj

  • Resolution passed at the Lahore session in 1929

  • On 31 December 1929, the tricolor was hoisted

  • On 26 January 1930, Independence Day was celebrated.

Civil Disobedience Movement

  • Started by Gandhi on 12th March 1930 with the Dandi March. Reached Dandi on April 6.

  • Defiance of forest laws in Maharashtra, Central Province and Karnataka. Refusal to pay chaukidari tax in Eastern India.

  • Wide participation of women

  • Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan organized Khudai Khidmatgars (aka Red Shirts)

  • Nagaland: Rani Gaidilieu

  • First RTC, 1930

  • Congress boycotted

Gandhi-Irwin Pact, 1931

  • Government agreed to release the political prisoners who had remained non-violent

  • Right to make salt for consumption

  • Right to peaceful picketing of liquor and foreign cloth shops

  • Congress suspended the Civil Disobedience Movement

  • Agreed to take part in the second RTC.

August Offer (1940)

  • After the WWII began, British sought cooperation from India. August Offer offered three proposals. Firstly, it called for an immediate expansion of Viceroy’s Executive Council with the inclusion of India representatives; secondly, an advisory body with the members from British India and Indian princely states which were supposed to meet at consequent intervals was established and thirdly, two practical steps were decided to be taken in which it was to come at an agreement with the Indians on the form of the post representatives body should take and the methods by which it should come to a conclusion. It further planned to draw out the principles and outlines of the Constitution itself.

  • Congress did not accept the offer.

CR Formula

C. Rajagopalachari’s formula (or C. R. formula or Rajaji formula) was a proposal formulated by C. Rajagopalachari, a Congress leader from Madras, devised a proposal for the Congress to offer the League the Muslim of all the peoples in the regions where Muslims made a majority. Although the formula was opposed even within the Congress party, used it as his proposal in his talks with in 1944. However, Jinnah rejected the proposal and the talks failed.

The CR Formula Entailed

  • The League was to endorse the Indian demand for independence and to co-operate with the Congress in formation of Provisional Interim Government for a transitional period.

  • At the end of the War, a commission would be appointed to demarcate the districts having a Muslim population in absolute majority and in those areas plebiscite to be conducted on all inhabitants (including the non-Muslims) on basis of adult suffrage.

  • All parties would be allowed to express their stance on the partition and their views before the plebiscite.

  • In the event of separation, a mutual agreement would be entered into for safeguarding essential matters such as defense, communication and commerce and for other essential services.

  • The transfer of population if any would be absolutely on a voluntary basis.

  • The terms of the binding will be applicable only in case of full transfer of power by Britain to Government of India.

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