NCERT Class 9 Geography Chapter 3: Drainage YouTube Lecture Handouts

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NCERT Class 9 Geography Chapter 3: Drainage in India

NCERT Class 9 Geography

Chapter 3: Drainage

Terms

  • Drainage
  • Drainage Basin
  • Water Divide
  • Perennial – Water Year Round
  • River System – River + Tributaries
Stream a and Stream B for Water Divide

Stages of River

  • Himalayan River – Intensive Erosion
  • Peninsular River – Short & Shallow
Stages of River

Drainage Patterns

Drainage Patterns

Indus River

  • Rises in Tibet, near Lake Mansarovar
  • Enters India in Ladakh, J & K
  • Zaskar, Nubra, Shyok and Hunza R. - Join in Kashmir region
  • Moves to Baluchistan & Gilgit & then Attock
  • Satluj, Beas, Ravi, Chenab & Jhelum join Indus near Mithankot in Pakistan
  • Length – 2900 km
  • India – 1 ⁄ 3rd in J&K, HP & Punjab; rest in Pakistan
  • Indus Water Treaty -1960 – 20 % water for India

Ganga River

  • From Gangotri Glacier in Bhagirathi R.
  • Joins Alaknanda R. at Devprayag
  • Reaches plains at Haridwar
  • Yamuna from Yamontri Glacier join at Allahabad (Left Bank)
  • Ghaghara, Gandak & Kosi R. from Nepal Himalaya
  • Chambal, Betwa & Son from Peninsular Region – Semiarid & Short Course of Flow
  • Ganga flows eastwards till Farakka in West Bengal (north most part of Ganga delta) – Separate in 2 parts:
    • Bhagirathi-Hooghly R. - flows southwards - deltaic plains to the Bay of Bengal.
    • Mainstream - flows southwards into Bangladesh & joins Brahmaputra – (Later called Meghna)
  • Forms Sunderban Delta – Worldest largest and fastest growing delta – Sundari Tree
  • Ambala- Water divide b/w Indus & Ganga
  • Length: 2500 km

Brahmaputra River

  • Origin: Mansarovar Lake in Tibet
  • Reaches Namcha Barwa & takes U shaped turn in Arun. P. – Dihang
  • Joins Dibang, Lohit, Kenula R. – form Brahmaputra
  • Called Tsang Po in Tibet & Jamuna in Bangladesh
  • Forms braided channel in Assam & riverine islands

Narmada River

  • Rises in Amarkantak, MP
  • Westward in rift valley formed by faulting
  • Deep gorge – Marble Rocks in Jabalpur
  • Dhuadhar Falls – River plunges on steep rocks
  • Tributaries short & join at right angles
  • Flows through MP & Gujarat

Tapti River

  • Rises in Betul District in Satpura
  • In rift valley parallel to Narmada
  • Shorter than Narmada R.
  • Covers MP, Gujarat & Maharashtra
  • Other west flowing rivers - Sabarmati, Mahi, Bharathpuzha & Periyar

Godavari River

  • Largest Peninsular River.
  • Rises from the slopes of the Western Ghats in Nasik, Maharashtra
  • Length: 1500 km
  • 50 % in Maharashtra, then MP, Odisha & Andhra Pradesh
  • Tributaries: Purna, Wardha, Pranhita, Manjra, Wainganga & Penganga
  • Known as Dakshin Ganga

Mahanadi River

  • Rises in Chhattisgarh
  • Length: 860 km
  • Drains Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Orissa

Krishna River

  • Rises near Mahabaleshwar
  • Length: 1400 km
  • Tributaries: Tungabhadra, Koyana, Ghatprabha, Musi & Bhima
  • Maharasthra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh

Kaveri River

  • Rises in Brahmagri range of the Western Ghats
  • Reaches the Bay of Bengal in south of Cuddalore, in Tamil Nadu
  • Length: 760 km
  • Tributaries: Amravati, Bhavani, Hemavati and Kabini R.
  • Drains Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu
  • Other Eats Flowing Rivers: Damoder, Brahmani, Baitarni & Subarnekha

Lakes

  • Large Lakes = Sea – Dead Sea, Caspian Sea
  • Dal Lake – Shikaras – Kashmir
  • Spits and bars form lagoons - Chilika lake, Pulicat lake, Kolleru lake
  • Seasonal – Sambhar – Rajasthan – Salt Water Lake
  • Wular Lake – J & K – Fresh Water – Tectonic – Largest freshwater lake
  • Dal lake, Bhimtal, Nainital, Loktak and Barapani
  • Artifical: Guru Gobind Sagar (Bhakra Nangal Project)

River Pollution

  • Untreated Sewage & Industrial Effluents
  • Increasing Urbanization & Industrialization
  • Ganga Action Plan (GAP) phase-I: Started in 1985 & closed in 2000
  • Ganga Action Plan (GAP) Phase-II: Merged with NRCP (National River Conservation Plan) – 152 towns on 27 interstate rivers in 16 states

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