Explaining Ocean Temperature Variation in Depth Using 3 Simple Concepts YouTube Lecture Handouts

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Explaining Ocean Temperature Variation in Depth Using 3 Simple Concepts (Including Thermocline)

Heat Transfer

  • Classified into various mechanisms by phase changes like
    • Thermal conduction
    • Thermal convection
    • Thermal radiation
    • transfer of energy
Heat Transfer
Wavelength (Angstroms)
Isohalines by Water Density and Temperature


  • Practical Salinity Scale defines salinity as conductivity ratio of a sample to that of a solution of 32.4356 g of KCl at 15°C in a 1 kg solution.
  • Sample of seawater at 15°C with a conductivity equal to this KCl solution has a salinity of exactly 35 practical salinity units (psu) .

Why Ice Floats?

  • Water is unusual in that the solid form, ice is less dense than the liquid form.
  • When water is frozen its molecules arrange themselves in a particular highly organized rigid geometric pattern that causes the mass of water to expand and to reduce in density.
Temperature of Salinity (Psu)

Brine Rejection

  • As sea ice forms, it excludes salt from the ice crystal lattice.
  • The rejection brine mixes into the seawater below.
  • If there is enough of it mixing into a thin enough layer, it can measurably increase the salinity of the sea water.
  • It is density.
  • This is the principle mechanism for forming the densest waters of World Ocean.
Brine Rejection
Open Ocean Polynya and Coastal Polynya

Deep Sea Layer

Deep Sea Layer
High and Low Level of Temperature, Salinity

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