Cholas and Other South India Dynasties: Functions of Assemblies

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Cholas

Functions of Assemblies

  • Collection of the assessed land revenue for the government or temple.
  • Additional tax for a particular purpose such as the construction of a water tank.
  • Settlement of agrarian disputes.
  • Maintenance of records.
  • Chula Culture

Temple Architecture

The Dravidic or south Indian style of arch texture reached its pinnacle of glory under the Cholas. The Chief feature of a Chula temple is the viand or the story, which caps later eclipsed by the richly ornamented ′ gourami or gateway; Under the Cholas, temples also came to have ′ mandalas ′ or pavilions and be- came the centres of life, particularly in the rural areas.

  • Among the early Chula temples, found it the Pudukkottai district, the most noteworthy are the Vijayalaya Cholesvara temple at Narthamalai, Nagesvarasvami temple at Kumbhakonam and the Kuranganatha temple at Srinivasanallur.
  • The best example is the Siva or the Brahadeeswara or the Rajarajesvara temple built in 1009AD by Raja at Tandoor Apart from being the tallest of all medieval Indian temples, it is masterpiece of south Indian architecture.
  • The temple of Gangai-konda Cholapuramin, the creation of Narendra I, was meant to excel its predecessor in every conceivable way Erected around 1030 AD the greater elaborate tion attests to the more affluent state of the Chula Empire under Narendra I It is larger in plan, though not as tall as the previous one.

Sculpture

  • The Chula period also witnessed great strides in the field of sculpture.
  • The Cholas are particularly known for their Natarajan bronzes (bronze statues of Natarajan or dancing Siva) .

Literature and Education

  • Growth of Tamil classics such as Sebeka sandman, Kaman՚s Ramayana etc.
  • Composition of very few books in Sanskrit.

Religion

  • Cholas were mostly devotees of Siva, though a few worshipped Vishnu.
  • Decline of Buddhism and Jainism.
  • Emphasis on ′ Dana ′ rather than ′ vane.

Other South Indian Dynasties

Other South Indian Dynasties

Chalukyas of Kalyana

  • Talia overthrew the Rashtrakutas and founded the dynasty.
  • Samsara Is՚ accession ushered in a brilliant period in their history. He transferred the capital from Manyakheta to Kalyana.
  • Under Vikramaditya VI the Chalukyas roe abed the zenith of power and glory. Bizana. The author of vikramankacharita. And vijnanesvara, the author of Mitakshara, enjoyed his patronage.
  • Though the reign of Samsara III witnessed the distar titration of the Chalukyas empire, it was an arced by literary activity. He was the author of an encyclopedic work called the Abhilashitartha Chintamani or the Manasollasa.

Eastern Chalukyas

  • Vishnuvardhana was the founder of a Dy nasty known as the Chalukyas of Vega.
  • Vimal Aditya III Gung a՚s reign heralded a policy of aggressive imperialism. He threw off the Rashtrakuta yoke after inflicting a defeat on the Rashtrakuta and proclaimed himself the lord of the entire Dashing Pathan.
  • Bhīma I was a devotee of Soya and built the temples of Bhimavaram and Daisha ram am in the East Godavari District. (AP) .
  • For a while Eastern Chalukyas lost power to the Telugu Chorda chief, Jada Chorda Bhīma. But Chula king, Rajaraja I, invaded Vega and helped the Chalukyas prince Saktivarman Ito capture the throne from jota Chorda.
  • Saktivarman was succeeded by Vimal Aditya, who married Kundavai, the daughter of Raja Chula I, by whom he had a son named Raja Narendra. The process of Chula Chalukyas matrimonial alliance ultimately ended in the merger of the two dynasties under Kulottunga.

Yadav of Devarai

  • Seunachandra secured feudatory status for his family from the Rashtrakuta. Hence the territory ruled by the Yadav came to be known as ′ Sundaes.
  • Bhilala V laid the foundation of the Yadav Empire by overthrowing Kalyana Chalukyas supremacy.
  • Simian (Sin Ghana) was the most power full ruler of the family. Neither the Hoyas alas nor the Kakatiyas dared to challenge his supremacy in the Deccan. He was also a patron of music and literature. Sengitaratnakara of Sarang deva, an important work on music, was written in his court. Changadeva stab lashed an astronomical college at patina in Khandesi in memory of his illustrious grandfather, Bhaskaracharya.
  • During Ramachandran՚s reign Aladdin Khalil attacked Devarai and compelled him to sue for peace.
  • Sankaradeva was defeated by Malik Kaur, who put him to death and annexed the Yadav kingdom.

Kakatiyas of Warangal

  • Their earliest known chef was Beta IA feudatory of the Western Chalukyas.
  • parole II՚s reign forms an important landmark in the history of the Kakatiyas. He threw off the over lordship of the Chalukyas.
  • Rudra deva՚s achievements are described in his Hanumakonda Inscription. He was a patron of art and letters and built the famous Thousand- pillar temple at Hanumakonda He founded a new town called Frugally Warangal) .
  • Ganapati deva swept over almost the whole land inhabited by the Telugu- speaking peoples. He also completed the city of Warangal by building two forts and shifted his capital to it.
  • Rudrama Devi, the daughter of Ganapati deva, was undoubtedly one of the Greatest of the rulers of the dynasty who took an active part in the government and led the army in person on occasions of emergency.
  • The reign of Pratap Rudra the last ruler, was marked by the repeated Muslim invasions of Warangal, first by the Khalkis and later by the Tughluqs. He was the author of the Intisar an authentic work on Kakatiyas polity.

Hoyas Alas of Dwarsamudra

  • Balata I, one of the early Hoyas alas had his capital at Blur, although Dwarsamudra (Halberd) was an alternative capital.
  • Bettina or Vishnuvardhana was the real maker of the Hoyasala kingdom. Originally, he was a Jain, but later he became a Vaishnava when he was influenced by the Vaishnava teachings of Ramanujan and built the famous Hoysalesvara temple at Halberd.
  • Balata II finally declared his independence from the Western Chalukyas.
  • Balata III was able to protect the integrity of his kingdom till 1310 when he was over – powered by Malik kefir. Finally, he lost his life in a battle against the Madurai Sultan.
  • Hoyasala temples: They are not single but double, having all essential parts duplicated. The temple itself appears to be the work of a sculptor and not of builder. This is best illustrated in the Hoysalesvara temple at Halberd, the Cassava temple at Somnath and the Chana Cassava temple at Blur Hoyasala temples have been described as sculptors՚ architecture.

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