Cholas and Other South India Dynasties: Delhi Sultanate: Political History

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Delhi Sultanate

Political History

Muslim Invasions of India

Muslim Invasions of India
  • Arab Conquest of Sind: Muhammad bin Nasim a deputy of the Arab governor of trig Hajji invaded and occupied Sing in 712 AD from its Hindu ruler Dahi Henceforth Sind continued to be under Muslim occupation. Though the Arabs failed to penetrate further into India, they initiated a new element in Islamic polity, i.e.. granting the status of semis to the local Hindu subjects by collecting the poll-tax of jazzy from them.
  • Invasions of Mahmud of Ghazi: Totally seventeen, first raid in 1001: seven tenth raid in 1025 to plunder the Samantha (Siva) temple in Gujarat; main purpose of his raids to plunder India,
  • Invasions of Muhammad of Gaur: His full name- Muizzuddin Muhammad bin Sam; main purpose of his invasions- to ac quire territories in India: his first invasion occupation of Multan (1175) ; failure of his attempt to conquer Gujarat (1178) and his defeat by its Solanki ruler (Maharaja H, the first Indian ruler to defeat Muhammad of Gaur) ; first battle of Train (1191) - his defeat by Prithviraj Chauhan III (ruler of Ajmer) ; second battle of Train (1192) - his defeat of Prithviraj; battle of Chan war (1194) - his defeat of Jayachander (the Gahadvala ruler of Kannauj) ; his last campaign in India (1206) to suppress a rebellion of the Choker՚s in Punjab, and his murder by a Choker fanatic.

Slave Dynasty (1206 - 90)

Qutbuddin Aback (1206 - 10) : The slave and deputy of Muhammad Gaur in India; became the first indecent Muslim ruler of India after the death of Muslimabad; founded the Slave dynasty also Known as Mamalis dynasty and lobar Turks) ; died while playing ‘Chauhan’ or polo succeeded by his son Aram Bash (1210 - 11) .

  • Iltutmish (1211 - 36) : Slave as well as son- in law of Aback; came to power by deposing Aram Bash; real console dater of Muslim power in India.
  • Raza (1236 - 40) : Daughter of Iltutmish; came to power after some internal conflict; the only woman ruler of the Delhi Sultana to, the only instance of a daughter being preferred to sons (Iltutmish himself had nominated her as his successor) ; deposed by the nobles and murdered by some bandits in her wilderness.
  • Weak Rulers: Bah ram shah (1240 - 42) , Masood Shah (1242 - 46) and Nasir Uddin Mahmud (1246 - 66) ruled in succession. During the reign of the last ruler, the real power was in the hands of a noble, Ulugh khan who was later known as Balkan.
  • Balkan (1266 - 86) : The first Delhi Sultan to break the power of the Turkish nobles (known as the ‘chahalgani’ or the ‘forty’ ) ; introduced new customs, such as ‘Sujata’ (prostration) and ‘pianos’ (kissing the Sultan՚s feet) to prove his superiority over the nobles; introduced the Persian festival of Nauru; created the ‘divan-i-ars’ or the military department
  • Kaiqubad (1286 - 90) : The grandson of Balkan, he was the last ruler of the Slave dynasty. He was struck with paralysis and finally killed by the Khalil nobles.

Khalkis (1290 - 1320)

  • Jalal Uddin Khalil (1290 - 96) : Founded the Khalil dynasty; murdered by his son – in- law, Ali Gunships (later known as Aladdin Khalil) .
  • Aladdin Khalil (1296 - 1316) : Political Reforms: He wanted to found a new religion but was persuaded to drop the idea by his advisers, who however analyzed the frequent rebellions by nobles and found four major causes – general prosperity, inter marriages, inefficiency in the espionage system and drinking.

Aladdin therefore passed four ordinances, Viz:

  • Confiscation of all grants of tax-free land.
  • Reorganization of the espionage system.
  • Prohibition of public sale and consumption of liquor and drugs; and
  • Ban on social gatherings of nobles and inter- marriages among them without pilot permission of the Sultan.

Military Reforms:

  • Introduction of ′ dash ′ (branding of horses) and chakra ′ (descriptive roll of soldiers) .
  • Insistence on regular muster of the army.
  • Abolition of the llTs՚ (areas whose revenues were assigned to soldiers in lieu of their salaries) of the royal troopers and payment of their Salaries in cash (iotas of big nobles and military commanders were, however, allowed to continue) .

Economic Reforms

  • Establishment of separate markets for food- grains, cloth, horses, fruits. Etc. , and their strict regulation.
  • Increase of land revenue to 50per cent of the gross produce and elimination
  • Resumption of several types of land grants such as imam; waqfyetc.
  • (IV) Appropriation of 4/5th share of the war booty (chums) to the state, leaving only 1/5th to the soldiers.
  • Creation of a new department viz divan-i- Mustakharaj; to enquire into the revenue arrears and to collect them.

His Conquests:

  • Gujarat Malik Kaur who was originally a Hindu, known as Hazardinari was captured and converted into Islam during this campaign) , Ranthambhore Chitter and other Rajput States, Malawi, Dogri, Warangal, etc.
  • Conquest of the Deccan and south India by Malik Kaur and collection of tributes from the local rulers without annexation.
  • Successors: Qutbuddin Mubarak kanji (1316 - 20) and Nasir Uddin Khosla (1320) – the former was the only Delhi Sultan to call himself the caliph and the later was the only Hindu convert to sit on the throne of the Delhi sultan ate.

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