Mughal Empire Babur and Humayun

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Detailed Map of Mughal Empire

MD. BABUR (1483 - 1530)

  • He was born on 14th February 1483;
  • Chagatai Turkish ruler;
  • He was 5th in descendent from Taimur and his mother was related to Changez Khan;
  • Mother՚s Name - Qutlug Nihgar Khanum, was the daughter of Yunus Khan;
  • Father՚s Name - Umar Sheikh Mirza - ruled the
  • kindgom of FARGANA;
Detaile Map of Babur՚S Map
  • In November 1497, he defeated Baisunqur Mirza and captured Samarkand.
  • He even lost Fargana, but in June 1498, he recovered Fargana and in November 1500 again won Samarkand from Shaibani Khan - the chief of Uzbeks;
  • Again in 1501, he was badly defeated by Shaibani Khan and compelled to give his sister Khanzada Begum in marriage. He became throneless and went to Taskent and took Shelter under his maternal uncle Sultan
  • Mahmood Khan;
  • In June, 1503, Battle of Archiyan was fought and this gave a lesson to Babur that he could have an east ward expansion;
  • In October 1504, he crossed Hindukush.
  • In Jan. 1505, he set out by Khyber pass for Peshawar and reached Kohat;
  • In September 1507, Babur crossed Indus advanced as far as Mandrawar in Lamghan;
  • In the meantime Shaibani Khan retired from Qandhar and Babur got tilte of Mirza (Prince) and styled himself as Badshah of Kabul;
  • Humayun was born here only;
  • Babur again became active in 1518;
  • He conquered Bhira and at the Battle of Bhira gunpowder was used for the first time;
  • In 1519, he seized Bajaur. According to Babur it was his first real Indian invasion;
  • After Bajaur he captured Peshawar, defeated Yusufai Afghans;
  • In 1524, Babur led his 6th expedition on the invitation of Daulat Khan;
  • Babur had to return back in 1525 because of the Uzbek rebellion;
  • In his 7th attempt on 27th April, 1526, first battle of Panipat, he defeated Ibrahim Lodhi and founded Mughal Empire in India;
  • In this war Babur took position in centre, right centre-chin Taimur Sultan and Left Centre Mir Ali Khalifa, also assisted by Humayun and Khvajakilan.
  • Ibrahim Lodhi had 1 lac. Men and 1000 elephants while Babur had 24 000 men;
  • On 27th April, 1526, the Khutba was read in his name in Jami Masjid;
  • In the meantime Agra was captured by Humayun;
  • Humayun welcomed Babur and gave Kohinoor to him, which was captured from late Raja Vikramjit of Gwalior;
  • Humayun captured Jaunpur, Gazipur, Kalpi and Gwalior;
  • Babur in December, 1526, narrowly escaped death from poison mixed in his food by Sultan Ibrahim՚s mother through royal servants;
  • Next target was Rana Sanga-leaders of the Rajput confederacy;
  • Rana Sanga helped Babur in the war against Ibrahim Lodhi;
  • Babur declared his first Jehad against Rana Sanga and Rana Sangram Singh;
  • Finally on 17th March, 1527, in the Battle of Khanua, village some 37 miles west from Agra, Rana Sanga was defeated;
  • Here he adopted a new strategy, also adopted in the 1st battle of Panipat-TULGAM (the centre has a weak section, while the sides have a stronger one) ;
  • After Khanua, Babur assumed title ‘Ghazi’ ″
  • On 7th April, 1527, he went to Mewat՚s capital Alwar and then to Malwa against Maidaui Rai and captured parts of Chanderi; On 2nd February 1528, he sent an expedition under VIVAN who captured Ayodhya and Lucknow and turned to Kanauj;
  • Here Mahmood Lodhi fought a war. On 6th May, 1529, Battle of Ghhagra (Battle of Ganga) , he defeated the Afghans;
  • There after Babur sent Humayun to Samarkand;
  • Babur became ill and retired to his Jagir ′ at Sambhal and on 26th December. ,
  • 1530, he died in Agra;
  • His body was sent to Kabul;
  • His autobiography (Tuzuk-i-Baburi) was written in Turkish. He wrote Diwan in Turkish and collection of Masnawis called MUBAYYAN - writer on law; He was one of the finest Calligrapher and painter;

Humayun (1530 - 1556)

  • Born in 1508;
  • Had 4 brothers –
  • Mirza Suleman (Badakshan)
  • Kamarn (Kabul and Qandhar) outside India,
  • Askari in Punjab and Hindal in Sambal and
  • Alwar respectively;
  • The Mughal army consisted of Chagatai, Uzbek Mughal, Persian, Afghan and Hindustani people;
  • Humayun՚s period can be divided into 4 phases:-

(i) Struggle- (1530 - 1540) ;

(ii) Exile- (1540 - 1545) ;

(iii) Return - (1545 - 1554) ;

(iv) Restoration - (1554 - 1556) ;

STRUGGLE (1530 - 1540)

  • He defeated the Afghans in the battle of Ghhagra;
  • In August, 1533, he laid the foundation of a new city in Delhi called DIN PANAH
  • (at the site of old Indraprastha) . It was completed in 9 months;
  • In July 1534, Md. Zaman Mirza and Md. Sultan Mirza revolted;
  • In 1531 Bhadur Shah who became active in Malwa annexed it. He then captured Raisen, Ranthambore, Chan-deri, Bhilsa and in January, 1533, Chittor. This alarmed Humayun ′
  • By Mach, 1533, Bahadur captured Ajmer and Nagaur;
  • In November, 1534, Humayun moved from Agra to Gwalior and camped at Chittor but Bahadur Shah did not come and he allowed Humayun to capture Chittor;
  • Rumi Khan was the master gunner of Bhadur Shah;
  • On 25th April, 1534, Bahadur Shah was defeated and he fled to Mandu ′
  • On 13th June 1535, he captured Champaner;
  • He appointed Mirza Askari as the viceroy of Gujarat, made Ahmedabad his headquarters and Hindu Begh was his advisor;
  • His success did not last long, as Askari did not prove to be effective. Gujarat was recaptured by Malu Khan, governor of Bahadur Shah;
  • In 1533 - 36, Humayun remained in Gujarat, which proved to be blunder for him;
  • Humayun returned to Agra in August. , 1536;
  • In July, 1537, he moved to Chunar, Rumi Khan now worked for him and Chunar was captured;
  • On the way to Gaur, Sher Shah cut off the communications in the Jharkhand area and the communication was lost between Mirza Hindal and Humayun;
  • His brothers Mirza Kamran was selfish, Yadgar Nasir Mirza incapable and Hindal was a rebel;
  • By the end of March 1539, Humayun set out from Bengal leaving Jahangir Ali Begh
  • at Gaur;
  • On 26th June, 1539, the Mughal army was defeated;
  • In 1540, he was again defeated by Sher Shah at Kannauj because of the following:-
  • rebel of Hindal at Agra;
  • no help from the rulers of Malwa and Sindh;
  • the communication was cut of and no re-enforcement took place;
  • Humayun was compelled to leave India and his brother did not help him;
  • His plan to go to Badakshan through Kabul failed because of opposition from Kamaran;
  • Haidar Mirza made a suggestion to take shelter in Punjab Hills;
  • Peace negotiations with Sher Shah failed;
  • He offered Agra and Delhi to Sher Shah and retain Punjab to himself, but Sher Shahiefused;
  • Due to pressure from the Afghan he had to leave Lahore in October, 1540;
  • Finally on 26th January. , 1541, he reached Sindh and incamped at Rohri - domain of Shah Hussain Arghun;

Exile (1540 - 1545)

  • Akbar was born on 15th October, at Amarkot;
  • Rana Virshal of Amarkot gave him shelter;
  • Wife of Humayun was Hamida Benu Begum;

Return (1545 - 1554)

  • After Humayun set out from his expedition in Sindh, along with 300 camels (mostly wild) and 2000 loads of grain, he set off to join his brothers in Kandahar after crossing the Indus River on 11 July 1543 along with the ambition to regain the Mughal Empire and overthrow the Suri dynasty.
  • Among the tribes that had sworn allegiance to Humayun were the Magsi, Rind and many others.
  • In Kamran Mirza՚s territory, Hindal Mirza had been placed under house arrest in Kabul after refusing to have the Khutba recited in Kamran Mirza՚s name.
  • His other brother Askari Mirza was now ordered to gather an army and march on Humayun. When Humayun received word of the approaching hostile army he decided against facing them, and instead sought refuge elsewhere.
  • Akbar was left behind in camp close to Kandahar for, as it was December it would have been too cold and dangerous to include the 14-month-old toddler in the forthcoming march through the dangerous and snowy mountains of the Hindu Kush.
  • Askari Mirza found Akbar in the camp, and embraced him, and allowed his own wife to parent him, she apparently started treating him as her own.
  • Once again Humayun turned toward Kandahar where his brother Kamran Mirza was in power, but he received no help and had to seek refuge with the Shah of Persia.

Restoration (1545 - 1556)

  • Humayun appointed Bairam Khan to the government of Qandhar and set out for Kabul;
  • He was helped by Mirza Hindal and Mirza Kamarn was forced to flee;
  • Humayun entered Kabul on 18th November, 1546, without any opposition;
  • In 1546, he campaigned Badakshan;
  • In 1549, he defeated Balkh and Uzbek;
  • In 1550, he again marched from Kabul:
  • On 25th December, 1554, he reached Peshawar and was joined by Bairam Khan;
  • In 1555, he defeated Machiwara (Ludhinana) ;
  • On 23rd July, 1555, he reentered Delhi;
  • Atga Khan, who took Hissar, had to surrendered;
  • On 24th January, 1556, he died leaving Bairam Khan as defacto;
  • The most disastrous campaign was Bengal
  • He died in Panch Mahal;
  • He wore black dress on Saturdays, yellow on Sundays and white on Mondays;

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