Important Development During Governor-Generals

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Lord Viscount Canning (February, 1856-Oc-Tober, 1858)

  • Press Act and Arms act, Indian Penal Code, CPC and Universities in Presidencies.
  • In 1856, war with Persia took place.
  • Outbreak of 1857 Mutiny.
  • In 1858, the proclamation of Queen Victoria.

Lord Viscount Canning (November 1,1858-March, 1862)

  • Indigo disputes took place in Bengal in 1859 and White Mutiny took place.
  • Enactment of Indian Penal Code.
  • In 1861, Indian Councils Act
  • In 1861, enactment of Code of criminal Procedure.
  • In 1861, the enactment of the Indian High Courts Act and famine took place in North-western Provinces.

Lord Elgin and Kincardine I (March, 1862-November, 1863)

  • Inauguration of High Court judicature in Bengal
  • conferment of first M. A degree from the Calcutta University
  • Transfer of Indian Navy to Admiralty
  • Ambala campaign of NWFP.
  • Amalgamation of the Supreme Court and Sadr Courts. into High Courts.
  • Death of Dost Muhammad and Afghan war of succession started in 1863.
  • Ambala Campaign started in 1863.

Sir Lord Napier (Officiating) (November, 1863-December, 1863)

Sir William T Denison (Officiating) (December, 1863-January, 1864)

Sir John Lawerence (January, 1864-January, 1868)

  • Scholarship Scheme was introduced;
  • War with Bhutan in 1864;
  • Indo-European Telegraph from Karachi, Persia and Turkey in 1865.
  • Famine Commission
  • Masterly Inactivity Policy was followed.
  • In 1865, the famine took place in Orissa and telegraphic communication with Europe opened.
  • In 1868, the Punjab Tenancy Act.
  • In 1868, annual grant of six lakhs of rupees to Sher Ali, Amir of Afghanistan and Railway opened from Ambala to Delhi.
  • Achieved breakthrough in expansion.

Earl of Mayo (January, 1869-February, 1872)

  • In 1869, Suez Canal was opened.
  • Ambala Conference with Sher Ali.
  • In 1870, LordMayo՚s first Provincial settlement
  • Wahabi and Kuka movement was active
  • Afghanistan was created as Buffer state
  • Cardinal principle of State policy - thee peripheral policy.
  • In 1872, Mayo was murdered.

Sir John Strachey (Officiating) (February, 1872-February, 1872)

Lord Napier of MercMstoun (Officiating) (February, 1872-May, 1872)

Earl of Northbrook (May, 1872-April, 1876)

  • In 1872, Kuka Revolt took place.
  • In 1873, the Simla Conference and a famine took place in Bihar.
  • Gaekwad of Baroda was deposed and Prince of Wales in 1875.

Baron (Earl Of) Lytton (April, 1876-June, 1880)

  • In 1876, Treaty with Kalat took place and famine took place in Deccan.
  • Statutory Civil Services
  • Imperial Darbar in 1877 -mark the assumption of the title of Empress of India by Queen Victoria and famine took place in North India.
  • Proposed to constitute Imperial Privy Council -comprising of Princes
  • Vernacular Act, March, 1878, Arms Act 1878 repealed and Factory act was finalized
  • Lowering age of civil services to 19 only.
  • In 1878, Stolietoff՚s mission was sent to Kabul and Indian troops sent to Malta.
  • Second Anglo-Afghan War in 1878 and flight in Sher Ali.
  • In 1879, Treaty of Gandammak - murder of Cavagnari - abdication of Yakub.
  • The Provincial Government was given the control of the expenditure upon all ordinary provincial services including land revenue, excise, stamps, law and justice and general administration.
  • Sir John Strachey, the finance member of the viceroy council tried to equalize the rates of salt duties in the British provinces
  • The Famine of 1876 - 1878
  • The British Parliament passed the Royal Titles Act, investing Queen Victoria with thee title of Kaiser - i -Hind or Queen empress of India.

Marquess of Ripon (June, 1880-December, 1884)

  • Battle of Maiwand; Robert՚s march to Kandhar and Abdur Rahman recognised as Amir of Kabul.
  • He became Secretary of India 1866 - 68
  • Repealed the Vernacular Press Act, 1882
  • First Factory Act 1881
  • Financial Decentralization; the source of revenue was divided into three: Imperial, Provincial and Divided
  • Resolution on Self-Government in 1882 called father of local self government.
  • Modified Permanent Settlement
  • Appointed Hunter Commission in 1882 to review the education.
  • Sir C. P. Ilbert was law member of the Viceroy Council, introduced a Bill on 2nd February, 1883, the Bill sought to abolish at once and completely every judicial disqualification based merely on racial discrimination.
  • Restored Mysore.
  • In 1883, Famine Code formulated.

Earl of Dufferin (December, 1884-December, 1888)

  • In 1885, two Acts passed
    • Bengal Tenancy Act
    • Bengal Local Self-Government Act.
  • Third Anglo-Burmese War started in 1885.
  • In 1886, Upper Burma was annexed and delimitation of Afghan Northern boundary took place.
  • Hospitals with modern facilities
  • Allahabad University was incorporated
  • Aitchison Committee

Marquess of Lansdowne (December, 1888-January, 1894)

  • In 1888, Hazara punitive expedition took place.
  • In 1889, abdication of the Maharaja of Kashmir took place.
  • Prince of Wales՚s second visit in 1889
  • In 1891, Factory Act was passed.
  • In 1891, military expedition against Manipur was conducted.
  • In 1892, the Indian Councils Act passed.
  • In 1893, the Durand Mission was sent to Kabul.

Earl of Eligin H (January, 1894- January 6,1898)

  • In 1895, the Chitral expedition took place and the Russo-Afghan Frontier was settled.
  • In 1896, famine took place all over India.
  • In 1897, plague broke out at Bombay.

Lord Curzon (January, 1899-April, 1904)

Lord Ampthill (Officiating) (April, 1904-Decem-Ber, 1904)

Lord Curzon (December, 1904-November, 1905) (Re-Appointed)

  • NWFP was created in 1900.
  • Punjab Land Alienation Act 1901
  • In 1901, death of Queen Victoria and Habibullah becomes Amir of Afghanistan.
  • Coronation Darbar 1903 marked the accession of Edward Fraser
  • University Act, 1904
  • Bengal partition, 1905
  • Ancient Monument Preservation Act, 1904
  • Imperial Agricultural Department was set up.
  • Calcutta Corporation Act 1899
  • Police Reforms - 1902 - 03 under Andrew Frazer
  • A Famine Commission was appointed under the Chairmanship of Sir Anthony Macdonnell.
  • In 1901 a Commission was appointed under the chairmanship of Sir Colin Scott Moncrieff to investigate into the whole question of irrigation.
  • A new Department of Commerce and Industry was established.
  • The Indian Coinage and Paper Currency Act, 1899.
  • Thomas Robertson was invited to restructure Railways; resigned after Kitchner controversy.
  • In 1904, expedition against Tibet sent.
  • In 1900, famine took place and North-West Frontier Province formed.

Earl of Minto H (November, 1905 - 1910)

  • On 16fh October, 1906, partition of Bengal came into force.
  • In 1906, Foundation stone of Victoria Memorial Hall laid at Calcutta.
  • In October, 1906, Arundel Committee on political reforms submitted its report.
  • In 1906, Lord Minto received the Muslim deputation headed by Aga Khan.
  • In 1907, Indian Decentralization Committee appointed.
  • On May, 11,1907, the Seditious Meeting Act passed
  • On June 8,1908, two Acts passed (a) Explosives Substances Act passed and (b) Newspaper (Incitement to Offences) Act.
  • 1910: Press Act was passed.
  • In 1910, Department of Education under a separate
  • member of the Viceroy՚s Executive Council established.
  • On June 22,1910, coronation of George V

Baron Hardinge of Pensnurst 1910 - 1916

  • Capital shifted to Delhi; Delhi Darbar on 12th December, 1911; Partition repealed.
  • On 23rd December, 1911, bomb thrown at Lord Hardinge.
  • In 1912, Delhi was made a province.
  • In 1912, Islington Commission on civil services constituted.
  • In 1913, Indian Criminal Law Amendment was passed.
  • In 1914, Forest Research Institute and College opened at Dehra Dun.
  • In 1914, Government Commercial Institute, Calcutta, and Sydenham College of Commerce and Economics, Bombay was founded.
  • On 29th September, Kamagata Maru arrives at Budge-Budge.
  • In 1915, Indian Independence Committee formed in Germany.
  • In 1916,
  • Saddler Committee on Universities appointed;
  • BHU was founded;
  • Indian Institute of Philosophy was established in Amalner.
  • On 20th June, 1920, Women University was founded in Poona.
  • Human sacrifice practised by Khonds was abolished.
  • On 28th , April, 1916, Tilak founded Indian Home Rule League.

Baron Chelmsford 1916 - 1921

  • September, 1916, Home Rule League was formally inaugurated by Besant.
  • July, 1917, Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Poona, was founded.
  • July, 1917 Austen Chamberlain resigns and succeeded by Montagu as Secretary of
  • State for India.
  • November, 1917, J. C. Bose founded Bose Research Institute.
  • On 10th November, Rowlatt (Sedition) Committee appointed and submitted its report in April, 1918.
  • Lahore High Court founded in 1919.
  • 5th May, 1919, Third Afghan War started.
  • 8th August, 1919, Treaty of peace signed with Afghanistan at Rawalpindi.
  • In 1920, Aligarh Muslim University was founded.
  • In 1920, Central Advisory Board on Education was founded
  • October, 1920, Esher Committee on military submitted its report.
  • November, 1920, Shiromani Gurdwara Committee was formed.
  • In 1921, Shea Committee appointed to prepare a scheme for the complete Indianization of the officers in the Indian army.
  • In 1921, Construction of the Victoria Memorial Hall in Calcutta completed except for the four corner cupolas which were put up in 1934.
  • On 17th November, 1921, Prince of Wales lands in Bombay.

Earl of Reading 1921 - 25

  • Visvabharati University started by Rabindranath Tagore.
  • October, 1923, Hari Singh Gaur՚s modified Civil Marriage Bill passed.
  • In 1924, Lee Commission on civil services submitted its report.
  • In 1925, Devdasi system was abolished by an Act.
  • On June, 1925, Indian Sandhurst (also known as Skeen) Committee was appointed on the employment of Indians in the army.
  • On 9th August, 1925, train robbery at Kakori.
  • On 22nd August, 1925, V. J. Patel elected the first Indian President of the Legislative Assembly.

Lord Lytton II (Officiating) 1925

Lord Irwin 1926 - 1931

  • In 1926, Indian School of Mines opened at Dhanbad.
  • In 1927, Sadanand starts the Free Press of India News Agency.
  • Royal Commission on Agriculture was constituted in 1927.
  • On 3rd February, 1928, Simon Commission arrives in Bombay.
  • In 1929, Imperial Council of Agricultural Research set up.
  • 20th March, 1929,31 members of Communist party arrested in the Meerut Conspiracy case.
  • 29th March, 1929, Jinnah formulated 14 points.
  • 8th April, 1929, Bhagat Singh and Batukeshvar Datta drop bombs in the Legislative Assembly.
  • 31st October, 1929, Lord Irwin announced that the goal of the British policy was the attainment of Dominion Status by India.
  • 12th March, 1930, Gandhiji started his Dandi March
  • 18th April, 1930, Chittagong armoury raid
  • 7th June, 1930, Simon Commission report published.
  • 12th November, 1930, the First Round Table Conference (RTC) inaugurated by George V and continued upto 19th January, 1931.
  • 17th February, 1931, Gandhi-Irwin talks begin and concluded on 5th March.
  • 29th August, 1931, Gandhiji left for London to participate in the Second Round Table Conference.
  • 7th September, 1931, Second Round Table Conference started.
  • 12th September, 1931, Gandhi arrives in London.

Earl of Willingdon 1931 - 34

  • 1st December, 1931, Ramsay MacDonald announces the decision to constitute NWFP into a Governor՚s province and Sindh was made a separate province.
  • 28th December, 1931, Gandhi arrived in Bombay.
  • 16th August 1932, Ramsay MacDonald announced communal award and on 24th September, 1932, the Poona pact was signed.
  • 7th November to 24th December, 1932, the Third Round Table Conference took place.
  • 16th January, 1934, earthquake in Bihar.

Sir George Stanley (Officiating) 1934

Marquess of Linlithgow 1934 - 1936

  • 19th December, 1934, India Government Bill was introduced in the Parliament; and on 2nd August, 1935 passed by the British parliament and on 4th August, 1935 got royal assent.
  • June, 1935, Rahmat Ali talks about formation of Pakistan

Marquess of Linlithgow 1936 - 37

  • June 1937, A. Abbott and S. H. Wood submit their report on technical education in India.
  • October, 1937, Gandhi formulated Wardha Educational Scheme.

Baron Brabourne (Officiating) 1938

Marquess of Linlithgow 1938 - 1943

  • August 18 - 22,1940, Congress rejected August offer
  • 17th October- 17th December, 1940, Individual Civil Disobedience Movement.
  • 23rd March, 1942 - 10th April, 1942, Cripps Mission
  • 23rd April, 1942, C. Rajagopalachari Formula proposed.
  • 7th August, 1942, Congress session started in Bombay and on 11th August, 1942, the Quit India Movement started.

Lord Wavell 1943 - 1947

  • 25th June, 1945, Simla Conference begins.
  • 28th January, 1946, Wavell announces Government՚s intention to set up an Executive Council of political leaders.
  • 18th February, 1946, Mutiny of the Indian naval ratings in Bombay.
  • 15th March, 1946, Attlee announces the Cabinet Mission; Cabinet Mission arrives in Delhi on 24th March, 1946.
  • 6th August, 1946, Wavell invites Nehru to form an Interim Government.
  • 16th August, 1946, Muslim League begins the ‘Direct Action Day’ .
  • 9th December, 1946, Constituent Assembly meets at New Delhi.
  • 5th January, 1947, All- India Congress Committee accepts Provincial Grouping under the Cabinet Mission Plan.
  • 20th February, 1947, Attlee announces end of British rule in India.

Lord Mountbatten 1947 - 48

  • Sworn in as Viceroy on 24th March, 1947.
  • 2nd June, 1947, Mountbatten Plan was announced.
  • 4th June, 1947, Mountbatten announces transfer of power on August 15th .
  • 4th July, 1947, India independence Bill was introduced in the House of Commons.
  • 6th July referendum took place in NWFP, boycotted by Abdul Ghaffar Khan.
  • 11th August, 1947, Constituent Assembly of Pakistan meets and elects Jinnah as President.
  • On 15th August, 1947, Independence.

C. Rajagopalachari 1948 - 1950

Secretary of States

  • Charles Wood was the first SECRETARY OF STATES
  • Paterick Lawrence was the last secretary of states.

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