CAT 2020 Mock Test Part 1 Various Types of Questions on Reading Comrehension Preparation

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Question No. 1

The four sentences (labelled 1,2 3, and 4) given in this question, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper order for the sentences and key in this sequence of four numbers as your answer.

1. It was his taxpayers who had to shell out as much as $ 1.6bn over 10 years to employees of failed companies.

2. Companies in many countries routinely engage in such activities which means that the employees are left with unpaid entitlements

3. Deliberate and systematic liquidation of a company to avoid liabilities and then restarting the business is called phoenixing.

4. The Australian Minister for Revenue and Services discovered in an audit that phoenixing had cost the Australian economy between $ 2.9bn and $ 5. lbn last year.

Question No. 2

The four sentences (labelled 1,2, 3, and 4) given in this question, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper order for the sentences and key in this sequence of four numbers as your answer.

1. Self-management is thus defined as the ‘individual՚s ability to manage the symptoms, treatment, physical and psychosocial consequences and lifestyle changes inherent in living with a chronic condition’ .

2. Most people with progressive diseases like dementia prefer to have control over their own lives and health-care for as long as possible.

3. Having control means, among other things, that patients themselves perform self-management activities.

4. Supporting people in decisions and actions that promote self-management is called self-management support requiring a cooperative relationship between the patient, the family, and the professionals.

… Grove snails as a whole are distributed all over Europe, but a specific variety of the snail, with a distinctive white-lipped shell, is found exclusively in Ireland and in the Pyrenees mountains that lie on the border between France and Spain. The researchers sampled a total of 423 snail specimens from 36 sites distributed across Europe, with an emphasis on gathering large numbers of the white-lipped variety. When they sequenced genes from the mitochondrial DNA of each of these snails and used algorithms to analyze the genetic diversity between them, they found that. . a distinct lineage (the snails with the white-lipped shells) was indeed endemic to the two very specific and distant places in question.

Explaining this is tricky. Previously, some had speculated that the strange distributions of creatures such as the white-lipped grove snails could be explained by convergent evolution — in which two populations evolve the same trait by coincidence — but the underlying genetic similarities between the two groups rules that out. Alternately, some scientists had suggested that the white-lipped variety had simply spread over the whole continent, then been wiped out everywhere besides Ireland and the Pyrenees, but the researchers say their sampling and subsequent DNA analysis eliminate that possibility too. “If the snails naturally colonized Ireland, you would expect to find some of the same genetic type in other areas of Europe, especially Britain. We just don՚t find them,” Davidson, the lead author, said in a press statement.

Moreover, if they՚d gradually spread across the continent, there would be some genetic variation within the white-lipped type, because evolution would introduce variety over the thousands of years it would have taken them to spread from the Pyrenees to Ireland. That variation doesn՚t exist, at least in the genes sampled. This means that rather than the organism gradually expanding its range, large populations instead were somehow moved en mass to the other location within the space of a few dozen generations, ensuring a lack of genetic variety.

“There is a very clear pattern, which is difficult to explain except by involving humans.” Davidson said. Humans, after all, colonized Ireland roughly 9,000 years ago, and the oldest fossil evidence of grove snails in Ireland dates to roughly the same era. Additionally, there is archaeological evidence of early sea trade between the ancient peoples of Spain and Ireland via the Atlantic and even evidence that humans routinely ate these types of snails before the advent of agriculture, as their burnt shells have been found in Stone Age trash heaps.

The simplest explanation, then? Boats. These snails may have inadvertently traveled on the floor of the small, coast-hugging skiffs these early humans used for travel, or they may have been intentionally carried to Ireland by the seafarers as a food source. ‘The highways of the past were rivers and the ocean — as the river that flanks the Pyrenees was an ancient trade route to the Atlantic, what were actually seeing might be the long lasting legacy of snails that hitched a ride. . , as humans travelled from the South of France to Ireland 8,000 years ago.’ 1 Davidson said.

Question No. 3

The passage outlines several hypotheses and evidence related to white-lipped grove snails to arrive at the most convincing explanation for:

1. why the white-lipped variety of grove snails are found only in Ireland and the Pyrenees

2. how the white-lipped variety of grove snails independently evolved in Ireland and the Pyrenees.

3. how the white-lipped variety of grove snails might have migrated from the Pyrenees to Ireland.

4. why the white-lipped variety of grove snails were wiped out everywhere except in Ireland and the Pyrenees.

Question No. 4

All of the following evidence supports the passages explanation of sea travel/trade EXCEPT:

1. the oldest fossil evidence of white-lipped grove snails in Ireland dates back to roughly 9,000 years ago, the time when humans colonised Ireland.

2. the coincidental existence of similar traits in the white-lipped grove snails of Ireland and the Pyrenees because of convergent evolution.

3. absence of genetic variation within the white-lipped grove snails of Ireland and the Pyrenees, whose genes were sampled.

4. archaeological evidence of early sea trade between the ancient peoples of Spain and Ireland via the Atlantic Ocean

Question No. 5

In paragraph 4, the evidence that “humans routinely ate these types of snails before the advent of agriculture” can be used to conclude that:

1.9,000 years ago, during the Stone Age, humans traveled from the South of France to Ireland via the Atlantic Ocean

2. the seafarers who traveled from the Pyrenees to Ireland might have carried white-lipped grove snails with them as edibles.

3. rivers and oceans in the Stone Age facilitated trade in white-lipped grove snails.

4. white-lipped grove snails may have inadvertently traveled from the Pyrenees to Ireland on the floor of the small, coast-hugging skiffs that early seafarers used for travel

Question No. 6

Which one of the following makes the author eliminate convergent evolution as a probable explanation for why white-lipped grove snails are found in Ireland and the Pyrenees?

1. The absence of genetic similarities between white- lipped grove snails of Ireland and snails from other parts of Europe, especially Britain.

2. The coincidental evolution of similar traits (white lipped shell) in the grove snails of Ireland and the Pyrenees.

3. The distinct lineage of white-lipped grove snails found specifically in Ireland and the Pyrenees.

4. The absence of genetic variation between white lipped grove snails of Ireland and the Pyrenees.

Question No. 7

The four sentences (labelled 1,2, 3,4) given in this question, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Each sentence is labelled with a number. Decide on the proper sequence of order of the sentences and key in this sequence of four numbers as your answer

1. In the era of smart world, however, ‘Universal Basic Income’ is an ineffective instrument which cannot address the potential breakdown of the social contract when large swathes of the population would effectively be unemployed.

2. In the era of industrial revolution, the abolition of child labour, poor laws and the growth of trade unions helped families cope with the pressures of mechanized work.

3. Growing inequality could be matched by a creeping authoritarianism that is bolstered by technology that is increasingly able to peer into the deepest vestiges of our lives.

4. New institutions emerge which recognize ways in which workers could contribute to and benefit by economic growth when, rather than if, their jobs are automated.

Question No. 8

Five sentences related to a topic are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a meaningful and coherent short paragraph. Identify the odd one out. Choose its number as your answer and key the number in:

1. Our smartphones can now track our diets, our biological cycles, even our digestive systems and sleep patterns.

2. Researchers have even coined a new term, “orthosomnia” , to describe the insomnia brought on by paying too much attention to smartphones and sleep-tracking apps

3. Sleep, nature՚s soft nurse, is a blissful, untroubled state all too easily disturbed by earthly worries or a guilty conscience.

4. The existence of a market for such apps is unsurprising: shift work, a long-hours culture and blue light from screens have conspired to rob many of us of sufficient rest.

5. A new threat to a good night՚s rest has emerged — smart-phones, with sleep-tracking apps.

Will a day come when India՚s poor can access government services as easily as drawing cash from an ATM? … [N] o country in the world has made accessing education or health or policing or dispute resolution as easy as an ATM, because the nature of these activities requires individuals to use their discretion in a positive way Technology can certainly facilitate this in a variety of ways if it is seen as one part of an overall approach, but the evidence so far in education, for instance, is that just adding computers alone doesn՚t make education any better …

The dangerous iIlusion of technology is that it can create stronger, top down accountability of service providers in implementation-intensive services within existing public sector organisations. One notion is that electronic management information systems (EMIS) keep better track of inputs and those aspects of personnel that are ‘EMIS visible’ can lead to better services. A recent study examined attempts to increase attendance of Auxiliary Nurse Midwife (ANMs) at clinics in Rajasthan, which involved high-tech time clocks to monitor attendance. The study՚s title says it all: Band-Aids on a Corpse … e-govemance can be just as bad as any other governance when the real issue is people and their motivation. For services to improve, the people providing the services have to want to do a better job with the skills they have. A study of medical care in Delhi found that even though providers, in the public sector had much better skills than private sector providers their provision of care in actual practice was much worse.

In implementation-intensive services the key to success is face-to-face interactions between a teacher, a nurse, a policeman, an extension agent and a citizen. This relationship is about power. Amartya Sen՚s … report on education in West Bengal had a supremely telling anecdote in which the villagers forced the teacher to attend school, but then, when the parents went off to work, the teacher did not teach, but forced the children to massage his feet … As long as the system empowers providers over citizens, technology is irrelevant.

The answer to successfully providing basic services is to create systems that provide both autonomy and accountability. In basic education for instance, the answer to poor teaching is not controlling teachers more … The key … is to hire teachers who want to teach and let them teach, expressing their professionalism and vocation as a teacher through autonomy in the classroom. This autonomy has to be matched with accountability for results — not just narrowly measured through test scores, but broadly for the quality of the education they provide.

A recent study in Uttar Pradesh showed that if, somehow, all civil service teachers could be replaced with contract teachers, and the state could save a billion dollars a year in revenue and double student learning. Just the additional autonomy and accountability of contracts through local groups — even without complementary system changes in information and empowerment — led to that much improvement. The first step to being part of the solution is to create performance information accessible to those outside of the government …

Question No. 9

The main purpose of the passage is to:

1. critique the government՚s involvement in educational activities and other implementation-intensive services.

2. argue that some types of services can be improved by providing independence and requiring accountability.

3. analyse the shortcomings of government-appointed nurses and their management through technology.

4. find a solution to the problem of poor service delivery in education by examining different strategies.

Question No. 10

In the context of the passage, we can infer that the title “Band Aids on a Corpse” (in paragraph 2) suggests that:

1. the clinics were better funded, but performance monitoring did not result in any improvement.

2. the electronic monitoring system was a superficial solution to a serious problem.

3. the nurses who attended the clinics were too poorly trained to provide appropriate medical care.

4. the nurses attended the clinics, but the clinics were ill equipped

Question No. 11

According to the author, service delivery in Indian education can be improved in all of the following ways EXCEPT through:

1. use of technology

2. recruitment of motivated teachers.

3. access to information on the quality of teaching.

4. elimination of government involvement.

Question No. 12

The author questions the use of monitoring systems in services that involve face-to1ace interaction between service providers and clients because such systems:

1. are not as effective in the public sector as they are in the private sector

2. do not improve services that need committed service providers

3. are ineffective because they are managed by the governments

4. improve the skills but do not increase the motivation of service providers.

Question No. 13

Which of the following, IF TRUE, would undermine the passage՚s main argument?

1. If it were proven that increase in autonomy of service providers leads to an exponential increase in their work ethic and sense of responsibility.

2. Empowerment of service providers leads to increased complacency and rigged performance results.

3. If it were proven that service providers in the private sector have better skills than those in the public sector

4. If absolute instead of moderate technological surveillance is exercised over the performance of service providers.

NOT everything looks lovelier the longer and closer its inspection. But Saturn does. It is gorgeous through Earthly telescopes. However, the 13 years of close observation provided by Cassini, an American spacecraft, showed the planet, its moons and its remarkable rings off better and better, revealing finer structures, striking novelties and greater drama …

By and large the big things in the solar system — planets and moons — are thought of as having been around since the beginning. The suggestion that rings and moons are new is, though, made even more interesting by the fact that one of those moons. Enceladus, is widely considered the most promising site in the solar system on which to look for alien life. If Enceladus is both young and bears life, that life must have come into being quickly. This is also believed to have been the case on Earth. Were it true on Enceladus that would encourage the idea that life evolves easily when conditions are right.

One reason for thinking Saturn՚s rings are young is that they are bright. The solar system is suffused with comet dust, and comet dust is dark. Leaving Saturn՚s ring system (which Cassini has shown to be more than 90 % water ice) out in such a mist is like leaving laundry hanging on a line downwind from a smokestack: it will get dirty. The lighter the rings are, the faster this will happen, for the less mass they contain, the less celestial pollution they can absorb before they start to discolour … Jeff Cuzzi, a scientist at America՚s space agency, NASA, who helped run Cassini, told the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference in Houston that combining the mass estimates with Cassini՚s measurements of the density of comet-dust near Saturn suggests the rings are no older than the first dinosaurs, nor younger than the last of them — that is, they are somewhere between 200m and 70m years old.

That timing fits well with a theory put forward in 2016, by Matija Cuk of the SETI Institute, in California and his colleagues. They suggest that at around the same time as the rings came into being an old set of moons orbiting Saturn destroyed themselves, and from their remains emerged not only the rings but also the planets current suite of inner moons — Rhea, Dione, Tethys, Enceladus and Mimas …

Dr. Cuk and his colleagues used computer simulations of Saturn ′ s moons ′ orbits as a sort of time machine. Looking at the rate at which tidal friction is causing these orbits to lengthen they extrapolated backwards to find out what those orbits would have looked like in the past. They discovered that about 100m years ago the orbits of two of them, Tethys and Dione, would have interacted in a way that left the planes in which they orbit markedly tilted. But their orbits are untilted. The obvious, if unsettling, conclusion was that this interaction never happened — and thus that at the time when it should have happened, Dione and Tethys were simply not there. They must have come into being later …

Question No. 14

The main objective of the passage is to:

1. establish that Saturn՚s rings and inner moons have been around since the beginning of time.

2. provide evidence that Saturn՚s rings and moons are recent creations.

3. highlight the beauty finer structures and celestial drama of Saturn՚s rings and moons.

4. demonstrate how the orbital patterns of Saturn՚s rings and moons change over time.

Question No. 15

Based on information provided in the passage, we can infer that, in addition to water ice, Saturn՚s rings might also have small amounts

1. methane and rock particles.

2. helium and methane.

3. rock particles and comet dust.

4. helium and comet dust.

Question No. 16

Based on information provided in the passage, we can conclude all of the following EXCEPT

1. Saturn՚s rings were created from the remains of older moons.

2. none of Saturn՚s moons ever had suitable conditions for life to evolve.

3. Thethys and Dione are less than 100 million years old.

4. Saturn՚s lighter rings discolour faster than rings with greater mass.

Question No. 17

The phrase leaving laundry hanging on a line downwind from a smokestack is used to explain how the ringed planet՚s:

1. moons create a gap between the rings.

2. rings discolour and darken over time.

3. rings lose mass over time.

4. atmosphere absorbs comet dust.

Question No. 18

Data provided by Cassini challenged the assumption that:

1. all big things in the solar system have been around since the beg inning.

2. Saturn՚s ring system is composed mostly of water ice.

3. there was life on earth when Saturn՚s rings were being formed.

4. new celestial bodies can form from the destruction of old celestial bodies.