CAT Model Paper 10 Questions and Answers with Explanation Part 5

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41. Read the following paragraph and answer the questions that follow.

Consider the claim: “Even the General occasionally uses evasive language,” as this claim relates to the following reason: “After all, most politicians strive to please their various constituencies. And the General although a wise, forthright, articulate, and seasoned leader, like all important people, has to be something of a politician in order to be successful. I find it very hard to imagine always being able to please every constituency without, at least on some occasions, using evasive language.”

Assuming all the statements made as part of the reason are true, the initial claim about the General using evasive language at times

(A) Could not be false.

(B) Is probably true, but may be false.

(C) Is probably false, but may be true.

(D) Could not be true.

Answer: B

Solution:

Solution Strategy – Focus on the set of statements which constitute the reason given and determine whether or not, if those statements were all true, the claim being made about the General would then be certainly true, probably false, or certainly false.

Applying the Strategy – This question would have been easier had the statements which constitute the reason been presented in more absolute terms. For example: “All politicians use evasive language. The General is a politician. So, therefore, the General uses evasive language.”

But, that is not what we given here. Instead the statements are presented with qualifications such as “most politicians” do such and such or. “I find it hard to imagine” such and such. “Most” does not mean “all”. And “hard to imagine” does not mean “impossible”. These suggest that arriving at an absolute certainty, as suggested in Option (A) or Option (D) is not likely. The analysis which leads us away from those two options is confirmed when we note that even the idea that the General is a politician is more by way or describing how the General must behave, rather than being a firm categorization. And, yet, the argument as a whole makes sense.

It is true that effective leaders have to be politically savvy. It is true that political sensitivity requires one to use language that can present a message without unduly alienating people. And often this can mean being somewhat evasive, at least in contrast to being confrontational or in-your-face offensive in how you present decisions, ideas, and information.

Option (A) is rejected because the claim might possibly be false, although that is not very likely.

Option (B) seems the most reasonable, for it recognize the political realities of successful leader ship but does not go all the way in the opposite direction of requiring that the General must never ever used evasive language.

Option (C) is not the best choice here, for it goes too far in the direction of saying that the General probably has never used evasive language.

Option (D) is rejected for although the claim is probably true, it may in fact turn out that this particular General is the shining exception, which is compatible with the set of premises as given.

42. One of the most vexing problems in historiography is dating an event when the usual sources offer conflicting chronologies of the event. Historians should attempt to minimize the number of competing sources, perhaps by eliminating the less credible ones. Once this is achieved and several sources are left, as often happens, historians may try, though on occasion unsuccessfully, to determine independently of the usual sources which date is more likely to be right.

Which one of the following inferences is most strongly supported by the information above?

(A) Some of the events for which there are conflicting chronologies and for which attempts have been made by historians to determine the right date cannot be dated reliably by historians.

(B) Attaching a reliable date to any event requires determining which of several conflicting chronologies is most likely to be true.

(C) Determining independently of the usual sources which of several conflicting chronologies is more likely to be right is an ineffective way of dating events.

(D) The soundest approach to dating an event for which the usual event for which the usual source give conflicting chronologies is to undermine the credibility of as many of these sources as possible.

Answer: B

Solution:

A. Answer Option A is too strong. The questions states “on occasion unsuccessfully” whereas the option a states “cannot”. In Inference question we cannot choose strong answer options.

B. Correct Answer. It is a very light option. Moreover it is the summary of the question and not a rephrasing of the last line alone.

C. The language is too strong in saying independent determination is an ineffective way of dating.

D. The soundest approach is not the topic being discussed. Moreover we are eliminating less credible sources and not undermining the credibility of those sources.

43. Some argue that laws are instituted at least in part to help establish a particular moral fabric in society. Nut the primary function of law is surely to help order society so that its institutions, organizations, and citizenry can work together harmoniously, regardless of any further moral aims of the law. Indeed, the highest courts have on occasion treated moral beliefs based on conscience or religious faith as grounds for making exceptions in the application of laws.

The statements above, it true, most strongly support which one of the following?

(A) The manner in which laws are applied sometimes takes into account the beliefs of the people governed by those laws.

(B) The law has as one of its functions the ordering of society but is devoid of moral aims.

(C) The way a society is ordered by law should not reflect any moral convictions about the way society ought to be ordered

(D) The best way to promote cooperation among a society’s institutions, organizations, and citizenry is to institute order in that society by means of law.

Answer: A

Solution:

A. The answer option is a paraphrase of the last sentence

B. This option on devoid of moral aims is too strong

C. The answer overstates the case by saying that a society ordered by law should not reflect any moral conviction about the ordering.

D. No mention is made about the best way

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