CAT Model Paper 3 Questions and Answers with Explanation Part 10

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In early November, a revolutionary socialist party known as the Bolsheviks seized power in Petrograd amidst the ruins of a Russian empire that had come apart months earlier under the pressure of world war. In December 1922, having defeated its adversaries in an apocalyptic civil war, the revolutionary regime was able to announce the creation of a new state, the Union of. Soviet Socialist Republics. At the end of the 1920s, proclaiming its goal of building a powerful modern state and economy, this USSR embarked on a program of breakneck industrialization and forced collectivization of agriculture. Over the next 15 years, it imprisoned, exiled, or executed millions of people who were deemed to stand in its way: peasants, ethnic groups, intellectuals, ‘marginals’ (anything from market traders to down-and-outs), and political ‘enemies’ of other varieties. The Soviet state then withstood its greatest test when it came through a world war, losing in the process almost 27 million of its citizens.

A few years later, in the mid-1950s, the regime of its own accord drastically reduced the violence on which it had hitherto relied so heavily. While the Soviet system became less inhumane, it proved unable to keep up the frenetic growth of the 1930s or to meet the challenges of social modernization and the post-industrial economy. In the mid-1980s, mindful of these problems, the leadership embarked on a tentative program of economic and political reform that soon weakened its control over society and its authority. In December, unable to withstand the pace of events, the Soviet Union found itself signed out of existence.

This stark chronological sketch brings to the fore two inescapable facts about the country that forms the subject of this book. First, for the first three decades of its existence, it was the scene of appalling violence and suffering. Second, its history has an obvious narrative shape: revolutionary upsurge, bloody rise of dictatorship, victory and partial vindication in World War II, followed by attenuated liberalization and slide into late industrial obsolescence. These two points have almost overpowering implications for how one might decide to write a book about the USSR. The illiberal and oppressive character of Soviet rule, especially in the period 1917– 53, has rightly driven many observers to ask who (or what) was responsible for the violence. And the (now completed) historical trajectory of the Soviet Union seems to follow a bell curve of steep rise, precarious stability, and precipitous fall.

Between the 1950s and the mid-1980s, many fine studies of Soviet history were written, but there remained a nagging suspicion that Western scholars might be inferring too much from too little, while the only Russians who were able to comment freely on their own history were émigré’s. Then, in the Gorbachev era, most historical taboos were lifted, and by the early 1990s Russian archives were opening their doors to Western researchers and – even more remarkably – delivering many of the documents that those researchers wanted to see. Soviet history had suddenly become a very different kind of pursuit, and this archival boom promised great insights.

Q: 49. When the author talks about “attenuated liberalization” in the USSR, the author tries to signify that

(A) USSR attempts at liberalization were defeated by large scale corruption

(B) USSR undertook rapid and drastic liberalization measures

(C) USSR introduced a weak form of liberalization

(D) USSR was unable to become globally competitive

Ans: C

Solution:

The passage supports the idea that liberalization was only in words but not in deeds and had virtually no political significance.

Q: 50. It can be inferred that any pursuit to compose a book on modern Russian history will involve

(A) An extensive research on how the country sustained so much violence through the three decades of revolutionary politics

(B) A grand narrative of the corrupt political upsurge, dreadful violence and genocide and the political decadence of a great nation

(C) A compelling portrayal of revolutionary ideals lost in commercial greed

(D) A compelling story of a nation built on horrifying violence, rapid growth, forged in war and the slide into decadence.

Ans: D

Solution:

Study the second last passage closely. The choice between B and D is close.

Option B is ruled out for two reasons. One, the adjective “corrupt” upsurge is without any basis. Nowhere does the author suggest that the revolution was corrupt. Secondly the adjective “great” nation. Again the author does not judge USSR to be a great nation. In fact, he seems to be more critical. Option A talks only of the violent history. C has no basis in the passage.

Q: 51. The author portrays a severe contradiction between the presence of inhuman politics and industrial growth by exemplifying

(A) Russia lost a major mass of its population in the world war and could therefore support the rapid growth of its industry and commerce of the 30s

(B) Russia’s rapid growth in the 30’s was based on large scale violence and oppression

(C) Russian globalization couldn’t stand a chance against the frantic demands of Western industrialization and commerce

(D) The revolutionary spirit that generated rapid growth died down by the late 40s

Ans: B

Solution:

The passage mentions that millions were imprisoned, exiled or executed in the pursuit of rapid industrialization and collectivization of agriculture. A is not the answer as the loss of population in the war is not the reason for growth. In fact rapid industrialization etc. happened from late 20s, which was before the war. C and D have no basis in the passage

Q: 52. The sentences, A, B, C, D, and E, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. From among the four choices given below the question, choose the MOST LOGICAL ORDER of sentences that constructs a coherent paragraph.

(A) When its tribunes take the stage, mainstream pundits titter and shake their heads, dropping words like “paranoid,” “demagogue,” and “not serious.”

(B) It’s enough to make you wonder whether populism means anything at all anymore, beyond a vague willingness to align yourself with the common man.

(C) Populism is Andrew Jackson’s rowdy inaugural ball, with muddy-shoed drunks tromping through the White House, climbing out the windows, and downing wine and ice cream on the lawn.

(D) Real populism is angry, dangerous, and déclassé.

(E) Hillary Clinton can recite a few lines about the “invisible” masses, but that isn’t enough to make her a populist.

(A) BDAEC

(B) ABCDE

(C) ADCBE

(D) EBDCA

Ans: A

Solution:

The “its tribune” in (A) is referring to the subject of „populism‟ which is present in all other statements. Also (C) and (E) are two contrasting examples so should come together. Between (B) and (D), (B) is raising a sq. on the meaning of populism and (D) is providing the answer. Thus BD concomitant. Only choice (1) has this pair plus the cluster of (E) and (C).

Q: 53. From the paragraph below the last sentence has been deleted. From the given options, choose the sentence that completes the paragraph in the most appropriate way.

The falling rate of profit is rooted in the increasing productivity of labour as it develops under capitalism. As Marx explained, “...the level of the social productivity of labour is expressed in the relative extent of the means of production that one worker, during a given time, with the same degree of intensity of labour power, turns into products. The mass of means of production with which he functions in this way increases with the productivity of his labour. But those means of production play a double role. The increase of some is a consequence, that of others a condition, of the increasing productivity of labour. For example, the consequence of the division of labour (under manufacture) and the application of machinery is that more raw material is worked up in the same time, and therefore a greater mass of raw material and auxiliary substances enters into the labour process. That is the consequence of the increasing productivity of labour. __________________

(A) But whether condition or consequence, the growing extent of the means of production, as compared with the labour power incorporated into them, is an expression of the growing productivity of labour.

(B) On the other hand, the mass of machinery, beasts of burden, mineral manures, drainpipes, etc., is a condition of the increasing productivity of labour.

(C) The increase of the latter appears, therefore, in the diminution of the mass of labour in proportion to the mass of means of production moved by it, or in the diminution of the subjective factor of the labour process as compared with the objective factor.

(D) But what is really obtained in exchange for variable capital is living labour which creates more value in production than is paid for in the form of wages.

Ans: B

Solution:

The paragraph talks about increase in means of production with increase in productivity of labour. The paragraph explains that it happens sometimes as a condition and sometimes as a consequence. The last lines explain with an example about consequence. Hence the next line should talk about “condition”. Hence B. A follows after B and explains it further.

Q: 54. Five sentences are given below and labelled as A, B, C, D and E. Of these, four statements form a coherent paragraph/passage. From the given options, choose the sentence that does not fit into the paragraph/passage.

(A) Nanotechnology also has the potential to improve the environment, both through direct applications of Nano-material to detect, prevent, and remove pollutants, as well as indirectly by using nanotechnology to design cleaner industrial processes and create environmentally responsible products.

(B) However, there are unanswered questions about the impacts of nano-material and

Nano-products on human health and the environment, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or the Agency) has the obligation to ensure that potential risks are adequately understood to protect human health and the environment.

(C) As products made from Nano-material become more numerous and therefore more prevalent in the environment, EPA is thus considering how to best leverage advances in nanotechnology to enhance environmental protection, as well as how the introduction of Nano-material into the environment will impact the Agency’s environmental programs, policies, research needs, and approaches to decision making.

(D) Our economy will be increasingly affected by nanotechnology as more products containing Nano-material move from research and development into production and commerce.

(E) In December 2004, the Agency’s Science Policy Council convened an intra-Agency

Nanotechnology Workgroup and charged the group with developing a white paper to examine the implications and applications of nanotechnology.

(A) A

(B) B

(C) C

(D) D

Ans: D

Solution:

The focus of the paragraph is on the effects on Nano technology on the environment, both positive and negative. Sentence D talks about the effects on the economy and is hence the odd man out

Q: 55. In the sentence below a part of the sentence is underlined. The sentence is followed by four ways of writing the underlined part. Answer choice (A) repeats the original, the other answer choices vary. If you think that the original phrasing is the best choice select option (A). If you think one of the other answer choices is the best, select that choice

Though Alexander Solzinithsin’s prose proved less popular than Pushkin’s is and less influential than Roman Jacobson’s is, it is no less important.

(A) Pushkin’s is and less influential than Roman Jacobson’s is, it

(B) Pushkin’s and less influential than Roman Jacobson’s, it

(C) Pushkin’s and less influential than Roman Jacobson’s, he

(D) Pushkin and not as influential as Roman Jacobson, he

Ans: B

Solution:

The redundant verb ‘is’ after “Pushkin’s” is incorrect as the main verb of the sentence, ‘proved’ is already established. Also, pronoun ‘it’ replaces the inanimate noun ‘prose’. Hence ‘he’ is incorrect.

Q: 56. The sentence below has two blanks followed by four pairs of words as choices. From the choices, select the pair of words that can best complete the given sentence.

Although the term organized crime should be used with caution in describing the ______________ industry, Interpol states that extensive evidence is now available which demonstrates that organized criminals and terrorists are heavily involved in planning and ___________ intellectual property related crimes.

(A) Counterfeiting, committing

(B) Phony, inciting

(C) Piracy, encouraging

(D) Pharmaceutical, perpetrating

Ans: A

Solution:

A. The clue is in the last part of the sentence: “intellectual property related crimes”. Thus the first word has to be “counterfeiting”. The word is a participle which describes functioning of the noun “industry”. Though “phony” is synonymous to counterfeit, it describes the industry to be “phony”, which is not the correct reference.

The industry is real, the activity is intellectual stealing. Option C piracy is related to intellectual theft but encouraging doesn’t fit. Neither does inciting in option D, where

Pharma doesn’t fit at all.

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