CAT Model Paper 3 Questions and Answers with Explanation Part 8

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Q: 39. From the paragraph below the last sentence has been deleted. From the given options, choose the sentence that completes the paragraph in the most appropriate way.

Suspending the Internet may be a blunt instrument but controlling it can be an effective tool. China and Iran like to do this a lot. Other countries are more subtle. Turkey, for instance, constantly adjusts its levels of filtering depending both on the whims of authorities and public demands. As governments come to terms with the changes wrought by free services offered by companies like Google the Internet will inevitably splinter and balkanize.______________

(A) We could very well foresee a dismal future that could include walled-off national Internets, with virtual visas required for entry

(B) The Internet is already divided to some extent, with restricted access to the outside world from repressive regimes, and language barriers rendering others, a separate ecosystem.

(C) On January 28th 2011 the Mubarak government shut down the Internet in anticipation of protests.

(D) Instead of speculating about holographic Avtars’ and flying cars, we should focus on how technology affects power structures

Ans: A

Solution:

A. The key here is “splinter and balkanize” meaning break up into small parts.

While both 1 and 2 talk about division, from the last sentence it is clear we are looking at a prediction for the future (1) rather than 2 (current divisions).

Q: 40. In the sentence below a part of the sentence is underlined. The sentence is followed by four ways of writing the underlined part. Answer choice (A) repeats the original, the other answer choices vary. If you think that the original phrasing is the best choice select option (A). If you think one of the other answer choices is the best, select that choice.

Seeming to be one of the few colleges offering a master’s program, several students in the vicinity preferred attending Valley High.

(A) Seeming to be

(B) Because it seemed to be

(C) In that they seemed

(D) Although it seemed

Ans: B

Solution:

A is wrong. The phrase ‘seeming to be’, incorrectly modifies ‘several students’.

In C ‘they’ is wrong. In that it seemed...’, would have been correct.

D is wrong because although is a misfit

Q: 41. The sentence below has two blanks followed by four pairs of words as choices. From the choices, select the pair of words that can best complete the given sentence.

One of the major forces in contemporary literary criticism and theory is Jacques Derrida, whose ___________ critique on structuralism and the tradition of Western philosophy has ___________a wide range of influential critical activities generally known as deconstruction.

(A) Meticulous, inaugurated

(B) offhand, unveiled

(C) Dogmatic, given

(D) Pioneering, disclosed

Ans: A

Solution

A. Derrida‟s work is introduced as a “major force” among critical works. Thus the sentence has a positive tone. If it is a major force then it is one of the insurmountable works in criticism and must have been a detailed analysis that was flawless; hence “meticulous”. Now to the effect: there was a flurry of critical activities post Derrida”s critique on structuralism. Hence it was a major “force” or a great “influential” factor towards the latter critical works. Hence, the word “inaugurated” fits.

“Unveiled” and “disclosed” applies to hidden, cryptic, or secrets getting into light.

Start Passage

Directions for questions 42-44: Read the following passage and answer the questions given below it.

Hollywood has always had a tenuous grasp of subjects dealing with mental illnesses. Sure, they herald those films that deal with the insane and disabled as groundbreaking and monumental. An old Hollywood joke is that the only guaranteed way to win an Oscar is to play a retard. And yet, Hollywood, and the world film community at large, never really seems to agree how mental illness should be depicted. Some films, like Sam Fuller’s Shock Corridor (1963) and François Truffaut’s The Story of Adele H (1975) operated under the fallacy that sufferers of mental illness could turn ―the crazy‖ on and off as the plot saw fit. Other films, usually character studies like The Rain Man (1988) and A Beautiful Mind (2001), exploit their mentally challenged characters for laughs or tears. By and large, what most filmmakers don’t realize is that the mentally ill do

not, and cannot, comprehend the world the same way sane people do. It’s easier to examine mental patients from the outside looking in. So filmmakers treat the mentally ill as spectacles to observe and study.

In the Oscar-winning film ―The Snake Pit‖ (1948), the leading character, played by Olivia de Havilland, is depicted receiving electroconvulsive therapy, or ECT. De Havilland’s character, Virginia Stuart Cunningham, stands nervously in a line of female patients who are being assembly lined through the windowless treatment room. As her turn on the laboratory table approaches, her anxiety grows palpably into terror. Efficient but uncaring, the nurses prepare the reclining Virginia by lubricating her temples to apply the electrodes, restraining her arms to prevent thrashing, and inserting a mouth- piece to keep her from injuring her tongue. The director, Anatole Litvak, does not show the mentally ill young woman being shocked, panning instead to the electrotherapeutic machine on a nearby table, its dials and gauges fluctuating menacingly. Along with the more famous ―One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest‖, these scenes from The Snake Pit are often cited as classic “anti-psychiatric” representations of the brutal and barbarous pseudo-treatments allegedly inflicted on patients in government-run asylums during the 1940s and 50s, when a whole battery of new somatic interventions, including, most deplorably, lobotomy, came into existence. But, viewed carefully, there is more to The Snake Pit’s portrayal. In fact, for all her initial fear of the procedure, Virginia responds positively to her ECT sessions: over time, the treatments draw her out of the depths of her psychosis, until she is rational and clear headed enough to undergo psychotherapy with the caring and handsome “Or

Kit”, which in turn leads to her recovery and return home.

These two views of this highly controversial treatment are at the core of Edward Shorter and David Healy’s provocative Shock Therapy: A history of electroconvulsive treatment in mental illness. Shorter and Healy, both highly accomplished authors, make a formidable team. Based in Toronto, Shorter is one of the most daring and prolific scholars writing today in the history of medicine, whose History of Psychiatry: From the age of asylum to the age of Prozac (1997) utterly rewrote past ―Freudo-centric‖ narratives by centering instead the development of past biological theories of the mind and soma to-therapeutics. Healy, based at Cardiff University, is now the leading historian of Cho-pharmacology in the world, whose informed and courageous analyses of our “anti-depressant era” have infuriated the global drug industry.

Q: 42. The central idea of the passage may be described as

(A) Review of cinematic works that study the medical processes of the anti-depressant era

(B) Psychiatric narrative of a derogatory medical process

(C) Study of a controversial therapy process of patients in an asylum

(D) Hollywood’s failure to understand the perspective of the mentally ill

Ans: D

Solution:

D is the answer as the passage clearly states that Hollywood has not understood that the mentally ill see the world differently. In fact Hollywood looks at them „from the outside‟. The passage is also a review of works that depict psychiatric therapy of mentally challenged people. It is not B because the passage is not a psychiatric narrative though it does justify a derogatory medical process. Similarly C cannot be the answer because it is not a singular study of a controversial medical approach. A is not the answer as the passage deals with Electro convulsive and Lobotomy and not the anti-depressant treatments.

Q: 43. From the passage it can be inferred that the primary assumption of the directors of the film Snake Pit

(A) The film should portray derogatory medical processes inflicted upon asylum patients in a bygone era

(B) The tone of the film should able to vividly depict the processes of shock therapy on asylum patients

(C) The film should be able to silhouette a glum and dark ambience under which asylum

Inhabitants went through derogatory medical treatment.

(D) The film, through its disturbing portrayal, should not only show derogatory medical processes but a transition into positivity, which should be the outcome of such processes

Ans: D

Solution:

D is the answer because the passage not only talks about one layer of the interpretation of the vivid and disturbing visuals but also shows a transition towards a normal life. The directors of Snake Pit had had wanted to portray such a transition and provide a hopeful picture for all asylum inhabitants and their families. Option c is too much looking into visual portrayal of the asylum ambience and is not an assumption but a suggestion. Option b is tricky because it says that the tone of the film should vividly depict. A tone cannot depict a process; it is the other way round. Processes, plots, and visuals depict the underlying tone of a film. Option a is half the answer of what is completed in d.

Q: 44. It can be aptly concluded from the passage that Shorter and Healy

(A) Have made a clear statement on the so-called derogatory processes inflicted on mentally challenged people

(B) Have revolutionized the way medicine should be endorsed and applied to mentally challenged people

(C) Have pushed the idea of unhealthy practices conducted by the drug manufacturing industries

(D) Have critically challenged the approach doctors take to make use of antidepressant drugs while studying pharmacological methods

Ans: A

A is the answer. Shorter and Healy together have published the work Shock Therapy: A history of electroconvulsive treatment in mental illness, which criticizes the practises followed in treating mental illness. C goes against the context of the passage where these authors are alleged to have fostered the idea of unhealthy medical practices. B is out of context because the authors are not pharmacological scientists and they have not revolutionized the processes of medicine application on mentally challenged people. D is not the answer as it refers to the work done by Healy alone

End Passage

Q: 45. The word SHOULDER has been used in four sentences below. Identify the sentence where the word has been INCORRECTLY used.

(A) The football fan shouldered his way into the crowd in order to get closer to his Favourite footballer and obtain his autograph.

(B) Being the eldest of the siblings, he had to shoulder the entire responsibility of the family.

(C) Even the police should not be allowed to sit on the shoulder of a road without any lights on as it might be dangerous for them as well as for other motorists.

(D) The entire cost of repairs and renovations will be shouldered by the company.

Ans: A

Solution:

Correction should be “shouldered his way through the crowd” to push or thrust with the shoulder so as to make way. The objective here is not go into the crowd but to go through and reach a target, in this case the football player. In option “b‟, shoulder the responsibility means to assume the burden or responsibility of. Shoulder of the road refers to the side of the road which may or may not be paved. In “d”, shoulder the cost means to bear the cost or pay the expenses.

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