CAT Model Paper 7 Questions and Answers with Explanation Part 8

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Q: 48. Four sentences are given below. Each sentence has a pair of words/phrases that are italicized and highlighted. From the italicized words/ phrases, select the most appropriate words/phrases to form correct sentences and mark the best option from the given choices.

a. The teacher’s encouraging words had a positive affect (A)/effect (B) on the students.

b. The opposition leader alleged that he was persecuted (A)/prosecuted (B) by the ruling government for his open criticism of their policies.

c. The perquisites (A)/prerequisites (B) of this job include free membership in a health club and free use of the company’s car.

d. Microsoft Paint is an inexpensive painting program that includes a colour palate (A)/ palette (B) that allows the user to choose both foreground and background colours with which to work.

e. His eager complacence (A)/complaisance (B) made it easy for his co-workers to take advantage of him and dump their work on him.

(A) BAABB

(B) ABBAA

(C) BABAB

(D) ABBBA

Ans: A

Solution:

‘Affect’ means “to influence”/effect means ‘result’. Prosecute is to officially accuse someone of committing a crime in a court of law/ Persecute means “to harass, or pursue in order to injure or afflict.” Perquisites – perks /Prerequisite - something which must exist or happen before something else can exist or happen Palette - the range of colours that an artist usually paints with/Palate - the top part of the inside of your mouth Complacent means ‘self-satisfied or smug ‘/Complaisant means ‘eager to please or obliging’.

Q: 49. The sentence below has two blanks, followed by four choices having two words. Select the most appropriate pair of words that can fill the blanks.

He liked to play the role of a __________ even when it came to ______ concepts.

(A) Jester….. Arboreal

(B) Scholar….. azure

(C) Devil’s advocate…… Incontrovertible

(D) Martian….. Lucid

Ans: C

Solution:

A “devil’s advocate” is a person who champions the less accepted cause for the sake of argument. Since here we are talking of “even …….concepts”, it clearly indicates incontrovertible as it is the only word which means indisputable. Only a devil’s advocate can take up such conclusive concepts and dare to argue against them. A jester is a joker. Arboreal means living on trees. Azure is blue colour and lucid means making sense or being clear.

Q: 50. In the question below the capitalized word is followed by four sentences using the same word in four different ways. Read the sentences carefully and mark that sentence as your answer in which the usage of the word is INAPPROPRIATE.

RUN

a. She had a run in with the college bully early in the morning.

b. While the Romans were slowly running all their troops into the ground, the enemy was building up a formidable reserve.

c. It is rather unfortunate that her success has been attributed to a run of good luck and not to hard work.

d. All the brothers have the same fiery temper it runs in the family.

(A) a

(B) b

(C) c

(D) d

Ans: A

Solution:

The correction should be “run-in” which is a noun and implies a quarrel or an unpleasant encounter with someone. To run into the ground means to work so hard that one nears complete exhaustion. A run of good luck refers to a continuous or sustained period. To run in the family means it is hereditary and recurs in subsequent

Start Passage

Directions for questions 51 to 53: Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

The history of linguistics can currently be divided into two main eras, pre-Chomsky an and Chomsky an: the importance of Chomsky to the science is that great. Before Syntactic Structures was published in 1957, linguistics was largely an anthropological enterprise: linguists went to other parts of the globe, lived with the locals, and learned their cultures and their languages as a single package (Boas, 1938). Social theories of language were common, such as the view that an apparent gap in the available functions of a language indicated a similar gap in culture (Sapir, 1921), and even a gap in cognition (Whorf, 1956). The approach to language was mostly Behavioural—language was seen as culturally learned, with children being trained into language—and the idea of language, as an inherent human capacity based on universal genetic attributes was largely unconsidered.

When Chomsky’s generative grammar programme appeared, it altered the whole way linguistics was done. Generative grammar views language as more than learned, it has an innate, genetic nature with its own rules and forms. What makes human languages similar is not that they do similar jobs, they are similar because they are all generated by the same language engine, and they do similar jobs because those are the only jobs that languages can do. After 1957, linguistics and anthropology largely parted company: culture no longer had significance for the basics of language; it could only impose a light dusting of difference onto a solid core of sameness.

In Syntactic Structures (1957), Chomsky reviewed the grammar models available at the time, showing them to be inflexible, incomplete, and unable to correctly parse complex grammatical utterances. He proposed the development of a new model, which he labelled Transformational Grammar. This was to be a representation that encompassed the grammars of all possible human languages, past, present and future—effectively, a Universal Grammar. The transformational rules in this grammar would make it generative and not just descriptive: it would explain existing utterances, but it would also predict all possible grammatical forms in any language from a limited set of utterances offered to it. This was an essentially computational approach, offering a grammar engine which would work just as well on a computer as in a human brain. However, while Chomsky provided examples of how the transformational rules could be arrived at, he did not provide a complete, working grammar. Syntactic Structures was a promissory note for a solution still to come.

In Standard Theory, a set of transformational rules interpret between deep structure forms and surface structure utterances, and a simple process then converts between surface structure and the phonological signal. The signal itself is therefore just the tip of the generative iceberg of language. Chomsky identified three resources as generators of deep structure: the lexicon (words themselves), phrase structure rules (how words are used together), and the encoded semantic values (what the words mean). These resources are not language-specific in Standard Theory; they are part of the universal resources available to all humans.

Although Chomsky thought that Standard Theory should be able to effectively describe Universal Grammar, he left it to others to identify the mechanisms of that engine. Without a detailed definition of the theory, however, different people found different solutions. Fillmore (1971) proposed Case Grammar, in which deep structure was based around the effects of the verb on other sentence components; Relational Grammar (Postal, 1968, among others) was almost the mirror-image, being concerned with the noun hierarchical relations of subject, object and indirect object; and George Lakoff’s Generative Semantics (1971) concentrated on the semantic content of deep structure.

Q: 51. Which of the following is not consistent with the pre-Chomsky an study of language?

(A) It viewed gaps in functions of a language as gaps in culture or gaps in knowledge

(B) Considered Culture and language to be intrinsically linked to each other

(C) It believed that a human child has an inherent ability in language and grammar by birth

(D) Languages across the world are similar because their functions are similar

Ans: C

Solution:

Please refer to paragraph 1 which describes linguistics before Chomsky. 1, 2 and 4 are directly mentioned. C is the one which is inconsistent, because pre Chomsky, linguistics held that language is a cultural trait that had to be taught to children.

Q: 52. Which of the following is not true about ‗Syntactic Structures’?

(A) Chomsky Exposed prevalent grammar models as rigid and incomplete

(B) Chomsky created a computational grammar engine that would be predictive(C) Chomsky Illustrated the process of discovering transformational rules

(D) None of the above

Ans: B

Solution:

Please refer to Para 3, which describes ‘Syntactic Structures’. 1 is given directly in opening sentence. Again option 3 is given in second last line of the same paragraph ‘While Chomsky gave examples of how transformational rules could be arrived at…”. For option 2 look at paragraph 5 opening line “…left it to others to identify the mechanisms of that engine.

Q: 53. Post 1957, why was there a parting of ways between linguistics and Anthropology?

(A) Syntactic structures was published in 1957

(B) All the cultures of the world had been studies extensively

(C) Culture had a significant influence on the grammatical structure of language

(D) It was established that Language was genetic and hence universal and not culture specific

Ans: D

Solution:

From the first paragraph, we learn that pre Chomsky, Linguistics looked at Culture and language as one package and Anthropologists would study both together by living with the tribes. However when Chomsky published ‘Syntactic Structures, everything changed. It became clear that Linguistics is an innate ability of humans and hence there was no link with social behaviour and culture. Hence no link with Anthropology.

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