CAT Model Paper 9 Questions and Answers with Explanation Part 7

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Group Question:

That placebos can cure evetyftang from dandnaff to leprosy is well known. They have a long hist, of use by witch doctors, faith healers, and even modern physicians, all of whom refuse to admit their efficacy. Modern distribution techniques can bring this most potent of medicines to the aid of everyone, not just those lucky enough to receive placebos in a medical testing program.

Every dtug tested would prove effective if special steps were not taken to neutralize the placebo effect. This is why dnag tests give half the patients the new medication and half a harmless substitute. These tests prove the value of placebos because approximately five percent of the patients taking them are cured even though the placebos are made from substances that have been carefully selected to be useless.

Most people feel that the lucky patients in a dtug test get the experimental dtug because the real dtvg provides them a chance to be cured. (1) Yet analysis shows that patients getting the placebo may be the lucky ones because they may be cured without risking any adverse effects the new dtvg may have. Furthermore, the dtvg may well be found worthless and to have severe side effects. No harmfial side effects result from placebos.

Placebos regularly cure more than five percent of the patients and would cure considerably more if the doubts associated with the tests were eliminated. Cures are principally due to the patient’s faith, (2) yet the patient must have doubts knowing that he may or may not be given the new dtvg, and wluch itself may or may not prove to be an effective dtvg. Since he knows the probability of being given the tme dtvg is about fifty percent, the placebo cure rate would be more than doublet’ by removing these doubts if cures are directly related to faith.

The actual curing power of placebos probably stems from the faith of the patient in the treatment. This suggests that cure rates in the ten percent range could be expected if patients are given placebos under the guise of a proven cure, even when patients know their problems are incurable.

It may take a while to reach the ten percent level of cure because any newly established program will not have cultivated the word-of-mouth advertising needed to insure its success. One person saying “I was told that my problem was beyond medical help, but they cured me,” can direct countless people to the treatment with the required degree of faith. Furthermore, when only terminal illnesses are treated, those not cured tell no one of the failure.

Unfortunately, placebo treatment centers cannot operate as nonprofit businesses. The nonprofit idea was niled out upon learning that the fu-st Dale of public medicine is never to give free medicine. Public health services know that medicine not paid for by patients is often not taken or not effective because the recipient feels the medicine is worth just what it cost him. (3) Even thou& the patients would not know they were taking sugar pills, the placebos cost so little that the patients would have no faith in the treatment. Therefore, though it is against higher principles, treatment centers must charge high fees for placebo treatments. This sacrifice of principles, however, is a small price to pay for the greater good of the patients.

50. Which one of the following best describes the organization of the material presented in the passage?

Choices:

(A) A general proposition is stated; then evidence for its support is given.

(B) A result is stated, its cause is explained, and an application is suggested.

(C) A dilemma is presented and a possible solution is offered.

(D) A series of examples is presented then a conclusion is draw from them.

Answer (B)

Solution:

In the first paragraph the author clalins that placebos can cure everything from dandruff to leprosy—this is a result. Then in paragraphs two, three, four, and five, he explains the causes of the result. Finally, he alludes to an application—the placebo treatment centers. The answer is (B).

51. For each of the following paragraphs, choose the sentence that does NOT belong Question.

(1) Story-telling should speak first to the heart and only second to the intellect. (2) It should,. Isaac Bashevis Singer’s words, “be both clear and profound,” and it should also entertain. (3) Many fine writing programs have sprung up across the United States. (4) The new writer should avoid creating pieces that are deliberately obscure and impossible to understand except by a small, elite group of other writers.

Choices:

(A) Sentence 1

(B) Sentence 2

(C) Sentence 3

(D) Sentence 4

Answer: C

Solution:

The passage is about the nature of storytelling and has nothing to do with writing programs.

52. For each of the following paragraphs, choose the sentence that does NOT belong

Question:

(1) Caribbean cuisine is a fusion of Spanish, French, African, Amerindian, and Indian cuisine. (2) Many people travel to the Caribbean to enjoy the beautiful beaches and warm weather. (3)A typical dish and one increasingly conunon outside of the area is “jerk’ seasoned meats, conunonly chicken. (4) Other popular dishes include curried goat and a soup-like dish called callaloo.

Choices:

(A) Sentence 1

(B) Sentence 2

(C) Sentence 3

(D) Sentence 4

Answer: B

Solution:

The passage has to do with Caribbean cuisine. People traveling to the Caribbean for vacation are irrelevant to the main topic.

53. If the proposed expenditures for gathering information abroad are reduced even further, international news reports have been and will continue to diminish in number and quality.

Choices:

(A) Have been and will continue to diminish

(B) Have and will continue to diminish

(C) Will continue to diminish, as they already did,

(D) Will continue to diminish 0

Answer: D

Solution

Option

5 Verb form + grammatical constriction

This sentence is based on the conditional construction if x happens, then y will happen In this case, x is proposed expenditures and the present-tense verb is reduced by is news report but the verb is incorrect The construction calls for a verb in the future tense, will continue to

A Have been is the wrong verb tense the constriction is also not grammatical.

B Have is the wrong verb tense the constriction is also not grammatical.

C As they already did is awkward and redundant expresses this idea.

D Correct. It will continue to diminish provides the correct future-tense verb for the conditional constriction in this sentence

End Passage

54. Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may include sudden fluctuations in lo. Seismic activity, tilting and other deformations of the Earth’s must changing the measured strain across a fault zone and varying the electrical properties of underground rocks.

Choices:

(A) Changing the measured strain across a fault zone and varying.

(B) Changing measurements of the strain across a fault zone ,and varying

(C) Changes in the measured strain across a, fault zone , and variations in

(D) Changes in measurements of the strain across a fault zone , and variations among

Answer C

Solution:

Parallelism

This sentence uses four phrases to describe the warning signs for all earthquake These phrases should be parallel The first sign is sudden fluctuations in lo. seismic activity, the second is tilting and other deformations of the Earth’s crust Tilting this case is used as a noun just as deformations and fluctuations are nouns The first two signs are parallel The third and fourth warning signs resemble tilling in the- ing form but they are not parallel because they are used as verbs rather than as nouns.

A. Changing and varying are used as verbs and so are not parallel to the nouns fluctuations and tilting.

B. The four signs are not parallel - the substitution of measurements of the strain distorts meaning.

C. Correct. In this sentence the four nouns- fluctuations, tilting, changes, variations-are parallel and the meaning of the measured strain is not distorted.

D. This sentence says that the measurements indicate an earthquake when the measured strain is the warning sign.

55. Fill up the blanks, numbered [1], [2]., to [4], in the passage below with the most appropriate word from the options even for each blank.

Question:

Companies require capital. Start- up companies, especially [4] – based companies that present high risk and reward, frequently need [3] more capital than founder’s wallet holds. This means that means that entrepreneurs have to seek other invertors – and the success of the business will be heavily [2] by the extent to which they take account of the needs of these investors when [1] up a business plan.

Choices:

(A) Drawing

(B) Giving

(C) Sorting

(D) Ambling

Answer: A

Option (a)

`Drawing’ up business plan implies making a business plan as mentioned in the para. Hence option (a) is in keeping with the essence of the pars and is thus correct. All the other options are not relevant in this context.

56. Fill u the blanks, numbered [1], [2] ., to [4], in the passage below with the most appropriate word from the options even for each blank.

Question:

Companies require capital. Start-up companies, especially [4] -based companies that present high risk and rewaed, frequently need [a] more capital than the founder’s wallet holds. This means that entrepreneurs have to seek other investors -and the success of the business will be heavily [2] by the extent to which they take account of the needs of these investors when [ 1] up a business plan.

Choices:

(A) Sought

(B) Felt

(C) Enticed

(D) Influenced

Option (d)

The factors governing the success of the business are being discussed. It will be influenced by the factors mentioned in the para. Hence option (d) is the correct answer.

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