Khalji and Tughlaq Dynasty, Mohammad Bin T and Firuz Tughlaq

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Khalji Dyansty (1290 - 1320)

Khalji Dyansty

Jalaluddin Khalji (1290 - 96)

  • Mitigated the harsh aspects of Balban՚s rule
  • Said that state should be based on the support of the ruled. Hence cannot be an Islamic state.

Alauddin Khilji (1296 - 1316)

  • Revered the liberal policies of Jalaluddin towards Hindus
  • Malik Kafur – general, led campaigns in South India
  • Conquered Gujarat, Rajasthan and Deccan
  • Amir Khusrau was his contemporary

Alauddin Carried Out Numerous Market Reforms

  • Fixed the prices of all commodities
  • Setup three markets in Delhi: for food grains, costly cloth, horses
  • Each market controlled by an officer called shahna
  • Revenue from Doab region to be paid directly to the state
  • First sultan to pay soldiers in cash

Military Reforms of Alauddin

  • Regular muster of the armed forces
  • Branding of horses (dagh)
  • Descriptive role of soldiers

Tughlaq Dynasty (1320 – 1412)

Tughlaq Dynasty

Mohammad Bin T (1324 - 51)


  • Giasuddin T died after the wooden platform broke
  • Transfer of capital: Delhi to Deogir (Daulatabad)

Token Currency

  • Khurasan project – to invade Af-Iran
  • Qarachil expedition – Kumaon hills to counter Chinese incursion
  • Famine – he left Delhi and lived in a camp called Swargadwari on banks of Ganges near Kanauj
  • Diwan-i-amir-ikohi department
  • Rebellions during the later part
  • Built road from Peshawar to Sonargaon and also to Daulatabad

Firuz Tughlaq (1351 - 88)

  • MBT՚s rule had left the army and nobles discontented
  • FT adopted policies to appease them
  • Offices and iqta were made hereditary

Period of Peace

  • Extended the principle of heredity to army as well
  • Imposed jizyah: first ruler to do so
  • Took steps to translate Hindu religious works to Persian

Humanitarian Measures

  • Set up Public Works department. Canals
  • Built towns: Hissar and Firuzabad
  • Set up a separate department of slaves.
  • After Firuz՚s death, the empire shrunk to just Delhi (a popular with reference)
  • 1398: Timur՚s invasion

Sayyid Dyansty (1414 - 1451)

Lodi Dynasty (1451 - 1526)

Bahlol Lodi – Sikandar Lodi – Ibrahim Lodi