Environmental Summits YouTube Lecture Handouts

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Watch video lecture on YouTube: Earth Summit & Conventions: 3 Aspects - Climate Change, Biodiversity & Sustainable Development Earth Summit & Conventions: 3 Aspects - Climate Change, Biodiversity & Sustainable Development
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Earth Summit Key Aspects

  • 1972: UN Conference on the Human Environment, held in Stockholm - United Nations Environment Program established

  • Earth watch: UNEP keeps constant surveillance on environment.

  • Global Environment Outlook (GEO): UNEP publishes this report. 5th report (GEO-5) released in 2012.

  • 1983, World Commission on Environment and Development led by Gro Harlem Brundtland of Norway – Sustainable Development

  • 1987: Brundtland report (Our Common Future) - UN General Assembly called for UNCED with primary goals of socio-economic development and prevent continued environmental deterioration

Agenda 21

  • Non-binding

  • Voluntary

  • Action plan of United Nations

  • Related with sustainable development

  • Can be executed at local, national, and global levels

  • "21" refers to the 21st Century

Rio Declaration

  • 27 principles & 3rd generation rights

  • Rio+10 (2002) – full implementation of Agenda 21

  • Rio+20 (2012) – renew political commitment, implement gaps & address challenges – 20 yr gap b/w 1992 and 2012

    • Poverty Reduction

    • Clean Energy

    • Sustainable Development

    • 7 Priority Areas: Job, Energy, Cities, Food, Water, Ocean & Disaster

    • 49 page document – “Future we want”

Statement of Forest Principles

  • First global consensus on forest

  • Developed nations should work to green the world

  • Develop forest based on socio-economic needs

  • Provide financial resources for development

  • 1994: Working Group on Criteria and Indicators for the Conservation and Sustainable Management of Temperate and Boreal Forests started

Cartagena Protocol

  • Or Biosafety Protocol

  • CoP 5 – opened for signature (2000)

  • Adopted in 2000 & ratified in 2003 & came in force 2004

  • Living Modified Organisms (LMOs) by biotechnology

  • Trans boundary movement & handling

  • Balance public health against economic benefits

  • Precautionary approach in Principle 15 of Rio

  • Establish biosafety clearing house

Aichi Targets

  • CoP (Conference of Parties 10) held at Nagoya, Aichi, Japan

  • Biodiversity protection targets – 10 year framework

  • Short term by 2020 as “Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020”

  • Long term by 2050

  • 20 Targets in 5 Sections (A to E)

  • Goal A: Address causes of biodiversity loss

  • Goal B: Reduce direct pressure on biodiversity and promote sustainable use

  • Goal C: Safeguard ecosystems, species and genetic diversity

  • Goal D: Biodiversity benefits to all

  • Goal E: Participatory planning, capacity building

Nagoya Genetic Resource Protocol

  • Came in force in 2014

  • Fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from use of genetic resources

  • Access and Benefit-sharing Clearing-House – facilitate implementation, transparency and monitoring

  • Create legal certainty

Classification of Parties to UNFCCC -2015

  • Annex-I: 43 nations + EU – Industrialized nations and economies in transition (EITs)

  • Annex-II: From annex –I, 24 nations + EU – members of OECD – provide support to EITs & developing nations

  • Non-Annex-I: Low income developing countries

  • LDCs: 49 nations under special status

  • Protocol: International agreement that stands on its own but is linked to an existing convention

Climate Change Initiatives

World’S First Climate Conference

  • In 1979

  • In Geneva

  • By WMO

  • Establishment of World Climate Program & World Climate Research Program

  • Creation of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) by WMO & UNEP in 1988

World’S Second Climate Conference

  • In 1990

  • In Geneva

  • Review World Climate Program

  • Establishment of United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCCC)

  • Establishment of Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) - global observing system of systems for climate and climate-related observations

World’S Third Climate Conference

  • In 2009

  • In Geneva

  • Focus on Climatic predictions

  • Contribute to achievement of United Nations Millennium Development Goals

  • Contribute to Hyogo Framework for Action on Disaster Risk Reduction (2005-2015)

Berlin Mandate

  • B/w UN convention & Kyoto Protocol – 2 CoP

  • CoP 1: Berlin – Berlin Mandate by developed nations to set targets to reduce GHG

  • CoP 2: Ministerial Declaration – Geneva – legally binding commitments on GHG were warranted

Kyoto Protocol

  • Adopted in 1997 & entered into force in 2005 – 164 nations

  • CoP 6: Bonn Agreement - 2001

  • CoP 7: Marakkesh Accord – 2001

  • Emissions trading – Annex-1 purchase credit from other annex-1

  • CDM - Annex-1 participate in non-Annex-1

  • Joint Implementation - Annex-1 do projects in other Annex-1

  • Russia, Japan, Canada, New Zealand & Many EU Nations ratified

  • GHG: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydro fluorocarbons, perfluro carbons, and sulfur hexafluoride

  • Canada - 6%, EU - 8%

  • Expires in 2012

Kyoto Protocol

  • Canada – ratified; USA & Australia – Not Ratified

  • Commits industrialized countries to stabilize GHG emissions

  • Sets binding emission reduction targets for 36 industrialized countries & EU

  • IPCC believed increase in temperature b/w 1.4 to 5.8

  • Targets add up to average 5% emission reduction compared to 1990 levels over 2008–2012 (the first commitment period)

  • Binds developed countries & heavier burden on developed nations under the principle of “Common but Differentiated Responsibilities and Respective Capabilities (CBDR–RC) ”, for high levels of GHG emissions

Copenhagen Accord

  • In 2009 – Mitigate GHG

  • Action to keep average global temperatures from rising more than 2 above pre-industrial times

  • Emission reduction goal for 2020, no target for developing nations

  • $30 billion in fast-start money from developed nations during 2010-2012

  • Beyond 2012- developed countries would mobilize $100 billion a year by 2020

Cancun

  • 2010 in Cancun, Mexico

  • Global warming limited to less than 2 relative to pre-industrial analysis

  • Establish Green Climate Fund - $100 billion fund to help developing nations deal with global warming

  • New Technology Mission - Fully operational by 2012 to boost the innovation, development & new climate-friendly technologies;

  • Adaptation Framework to reduce Deforestation - promote the implementation of stronger, cohesive action on adaptation

Doha Amendment

  • Agreed on 2012

  • CoP 18 & CMP 8

  • Not entered into force as required number of nations has not ratified this amendment

  • Amendment will enter into force when 144 or three-quarters of Parties submit acceptance

  • Important to achieve SDG 13

Lima

  • 2014 in Lima, Peru

  • 195 nations

  • Emission reduction by USA & China

  • EU to reduce emission 40% by 2030

  • Levels of transparency and confidence-building

  • Lima Ministerial Declaration on Education and Awareness

  • Low carbon & climate resilient society

Paris Agreement

  • Strengthen global response to threat of climate change by keeping global temperature rise this century well below 2 above pre-industrial levels

  • Pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase even further to 1.5

  • All Parties to put forward their best efforts through “nationally determined contributions” (NDCs)

  • Long-term temperature goal (Art. 2)

  • Global peaking (Art. 3)

  • Mitigation (Art. 4)

  • Sinks and reservoirs (Art.5)

  • Market and non-markets (Art. 6)

  • Adaptation (Art. 7)

  • Loss and damage (Art. 8)

  • Support (Art. 9, 10 and 11)

  • Transparency (Art. 13)

  • Global Stock take (Art. 14) – to take place in 2023 & every 5 years thereafter

Marrakech, Morocco

  • CoP 22 & CMP 12 in 2016

  • Water management

  • Decarbonizing energy supplies

  • SuRe –Standard for Sustainable and Resilient Infrastructure

  • Accelerating Urban Mobility Forum

  • Low Carbon Innovation

  • Green Academic Growth

  • $23 million for Climate Technology Centre and Network (CTCN)

  • $50 million for the Capacity-building Initiative for Transparency

  • Double World Bank climate finance for Middle East-North Africa region to $1.5 billion by 2020.