CBSE NET JRF 2017 − 18 Expected Topics & Questions Youtube Lecture Handout

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Environment & Geography

  • Ken- Betwa Interlinking

  • Water to Bundelkhand (drought prone)

  • Benefit Jhansi, Banda and Mahoba (Uttar Pradesh) and Chhatarpur, Panna and Tikamgarh (Madhya Pradesh)

  • Clearance by National Board for Wildlife (NBWL) – Diversion from Panna Tiger Reserve

Environment Tax in China

  • 350 yuan ($60) to 11,200 yuan ($1870) per month for noise.

  • 1.4 yuan on water pollutants

  • 1.2 yuan on stipulated quantities of air pollutants

  • 5 to 1,000 yuan for each ton of solid waste.

  • China: World’s largest emitter of GHGs due to its heavy reliance on coal to provide electricity to its population of 1.37 billion (world’s largest)

Ethanol

  • 1st generation ethanol: Made from the sugars & vegetable oils found in arable crops, which can be easily extracted using conventional technology.

  • 2nd generation ethanol: Made from lignocellulosic biomass or woody crops, agricultural residues or waste, which makes it harder to extract fuel using conventional technology.

  • India’s first 2nd generation ethanol plant at Tarkhanwala village in Bathinda, Punjab by Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited (HPCL)

National Green Tribunal (NGT)

  • Statutory body established by a Government Notification using the powers of Section 3 of the NGT Act 2010.

  • Special fast-track court to handle the expeditious disposal of the cases pertaining to environmental issues.

  • Established to assure the right to a healthy environment to the citizens of India as enshrined in Article 21 of Constitution.

  • Ban on burning of waste in open places

  • Fine: Rs 25,000

  • Cancel allotment of salt pan in Sambhar Lake with “No Construction Zone” – Ramsar Wetland Site

TanSat

  • TanSat will examine global CO2 levels every 16 days, accurate to at least 4 ppm (parts per million).

  • China third after Japan and USA to have satellite to monitor CO2 levels.

Majuli Island, Assam

  • ‘Sustainable Action for Climate Resilient Development in Majuli’ (SACReD, Majuli)

  • Aim to make Majuli country’s first ever Carbon Neutral district by 2020

Troposphere

  • 7-20 km ASL

  • Most weather phenomena occur here

  • Ammonia detected in upper troposphere

  • By Karlsruhe Institute of Technology in Germany

  • Ammonia (NH3): Released into atmosphere as agricultural emission from livestock farming and fertilization.

  • Highest concentrations above Asian monsoon regions of N. India and SE China

Kigali Meeting

  • Aimed to include HFCs in list of chemicals under Montreal Protocol.

  • India had negotiated baseline years (2024 to 2030) and freeze year in subsequent years for phasing down the use of HFCs.

  • It had two set of baselines years agreed for developing countries.

  • India along with nine other countries will have baseline years of 2024, 2025, 2026.

  • India will phase down of HFCs in 4 steps from 2032 onwards with cumulative reduction of 10% in 2032, 20% in 2037, 30% in 2042 and 85% in 2047

  • Largest HFC producer: China, followed by S. Africa & Brazil

  • Incentivize improvement in energy efficiency in case of use of new refrigerant and technology

IUCN Red List

  • Extinct (EX) – No known individuals remaining

  • Extinct in the wild (EW) – Known only to survive in captivity, or as a naturalized population outside its historic range

  • Critically endangered (CR) – Extremely high risk of extinction in the wild

  • Endangered (EN) – High risk of extinction in the wild

  • Vulnerable (VU) – High risk of endangerment in the wild

  • Near threatened (NT) – Likely to become endangered in the near future

  • Least concern (LC) – Lowest risk; does not qualify for a higher risk category. Widespread and abundant taxa are included in this category.

  • Data deficient (DD) – Not enough data to make an assessment of its risk of extinction

  • Not evaluated (NE) – Has not yet been evaluated against the criteria.

India’s Nationally Determined Contribution

  • India’s Intended Nationally Determined includes reduction in the productions intensity of its GDP by 33 to 35 % by 2030 from 2005.

  • For the create an additional carbon sink of 2.5 to 3 billion tons of CO2 equivalent through additional forest and tree cover by 2030.

  • Target 175 GW renewable energy by 2022

  • INDC is balanced and comprehensive. INDC purposes:

    • Sustainable lifestyle

    • Enhancing carbon sink (Forests)

    • Reduce emission intensity of GDP

    • Economic development

    • Increase share of non-fossil fuel based electricity

Environmental Issues

  • Kasturiranjan Committee

  • Gadgil Committee

  • Interlinking of Rivers

  • COP22 to the UNFCC: Marrakech Action Proclamation for Our Climate and Sustainable Development.

  • Doha Amendments to Kyoto Protocol

Geographically Important Topics

  • Sagar Mala Yojana: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=naRUe1pXiRg

  • Smart City Project: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i5clWhO91Dk

  • Sauni Yojana: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NAi2m4PIV3w

  • International Solar Alliance: 121 solar rich tropical nations – use sunlight

  • Uttarakhand – Glacier Tax, Ban on construction near glaciers

Important Videos

  • GHG: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o39w1Zpijw4

  • Ozone: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gTowzG49Ekw

  • Carbon Trading & Kyoto Protocol: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IZgBPL17a6M

  • COP22 & Marrakesh Action Proclamation: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mZglGT_0WHQ

Will be covered

  • Energy Independence by 2030

  • Renewable Energy Scenario in India