CBSE (UGC) NET Paper 1 Communication and Technology: Internet
The full form of Internet is Inter Network Systems. It is a worldwide network of networks and hence comprises of millions of interconnected computer networks. The growth of the Internet is phenomenal. The Internet is considered as a phenomenon unparalleled since the emergence of the printing press that ushered in a revolution in the production, circulation and integrating of information. The technical foundation of the Internet allows it to keep expanding almost indefinitely. The Internet has been compared with a tidal wave that will wash over the computer industry and many others and drowning those who don't learn to swim in its waves. As the computer has become a part and parcel of modern offices the Internet will force itself into the very texture of our life by the turn of the century. For millions of users the world over, Internet has become a means of cross-border transfer of information. It provides an ease in the direct contact between researchers from various countries. It is an outstanding means of communication. It offers an opportunity to every individual to exercise power in a way that no information framework has ever provided. Information put on the Internet becomes easily available and which can be accessible to millions of individuals. No single individual or organisation have the Internet. Its management is fully decentralised. It is thoroughly managed by individual and organisational volunteers. Each network meets the expenses for the installation and operating costs as well as those of connecting up with other networks.
Uses Of The Internet
Zillions of services are available on the Internet. It has come to be the single unparalleled device for finding solutions to all sorts of problems. Image, sound and text travel easily on the Internet. Users from all over the world can discuss back and forth. The Internet can arrange a round table conference at much lower cost. It has already become a new source of business. Some crucial applications of the Internet are: E-mail: E-mail is the most widely used Internet service and it has eliminated the distance factor. To send a message through E-mail one has to type a message and it would travel instantly over the network to whomever one wishes. An electronic mailbox that is an address, which mentions the source or destination of an electronic mail message is the essence of electronic mail. The mailbox acts as a storage area that sustain all the messages til the user reads it. An e-mail message can comprise text, graphics, voice and video.
FTP: File Transfer Protocol (FTP), a client-server protocol allows a user on one computer system to transfer files to and from another computer system over a TeptIP network irrespective of the platforms the users or the host remote site are using provided the user knows the address of the host computer and has some kind of idea of the information stored there. Usenet: Usenet initially implemented in 1979 − 80 has grown to develop as the greatest decentralised information utility in existence. It encompasses government agencies, universities, high schools, business houses of all denominations and individuals.
Usenet has emerged as one of the crucial segments of the Internet. There are numerous topics. A typical Use net message may contain plain text and or encoded binary information. Each message has a series of headlines which defme the source bfthe messagc, its destination, time and location of posting, what route it has taken over the network and 80 on. Communicating interactively in real time: It is possible to speak (VOICE) in real time on the Internet provided one uses the right kind of software.
The quality of the audio depends on the application, the speed of the computer and the compression method used. Standard compression protocols are: CSM, CVSD AND RTP. In a full duplex conversation, one can speak and hear the other person at the same time. In half duplex, only one person can speak at a time.
TelNet: One can use other computers via the Internet by using TeLNet-one of the most crucial protocols of the Internet. TelNet provides the user an opportunity to be on one computer system and do work on another-which may be very near or thousands of kilometers away. Acquiring software; The Internet is the world's biggest software library and it is possible to acquire software from the Internet. The software which are available free from the Internet are known as freeware and another kind is known as shareware software which is available for nominal charge.
World Wide Web (WWW): There is an incredible amount of information on the Internet and it is growing exponentially. As any individual or organisation does not control the Internet there is no master record of its information resources. WWW, a product of the continuous search for innovative ways of searching information, is a mechanism that links together information stored on many computers throughout the world. One of the crucial characteristics of the WWW documents is their hypertext framework created by Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) a simple data format. HTML lets one easily link words or pictures in one document to other documents and the resulting hypertext documents are portable from one platform to another. HTML works on matter where the documents are stored-whether in the same computer or elsewhere on the Net. One will just have to click on a phrase or icon in t he first document with one's mouse for the Internet to avail the related documents on the computer's screen. The system requirements for running a WWW server are minimal. WWW provides a way to interconnect computers running various operating systems. The simplicity of the HTML used for interactive documents allows a user to contribute to the expanding database of documents. The possibilities for hypertext in the WWW environment are endless.
Issues Of Concern
As the Internet is growing 80 are host of ethical concerns abo ut it. Certainly researchers and scholars-the early users of the Internet-would like to protect the Internet from censorsh ip. But law-enfoL'cing age specially in those countries where the Internet is widely used are considering means to curb impersonators, pirates and other improper users. Currently, censorship is basically done to protect the children against undesirable matters and topics.
Advertisement on the Net is one of the major issue. Because of its interactive nature it is persuasive in nature.
In the starting, everything that was available on the Net was free. It was intended to provide help to researchers around the world. But as the popularity of the Internet is growing a number of pay-service networks are appearing.
Issues regarding copyright and security have already surfaced.
The continuation of the Internet as a democratic information infraframework looks to be a problem by the unsocial web-based terrorists who attempt to spread disinformation and the software giants who are trying to define the Webonomics.
Some people consider that Internet may eventually end up in being a medium of ideological propaganda. However, such concerns do not seem to the well founded unlike other technologies of the past it is decentralising rather than a centralising force.
The rising popularity of the Internet is creating traffic jams and at certain times of the day the networks are so crowded that it is practically impossible to connect with certain server. The Internet is still evolving. The real Internet of the future may bear very little resemblance to today's Internet. The growth of the Internet has not followed any specific path in the past. But one thing about its future can be said with certainty that it has aimed to become extremely successful and exponentially faster.