Expected Questions on Education Set 1 – NET November 2017 YouTube Lecture Handouts

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Expected Questions CBSE NET November 2017 Paper 1: Higher Education Set 2

  • India holds an important place in the global education industry with more than 1.4 million schools, over 227 million students enrolled and more than 36,000 higher education institutes.

  • The sector is currently pegged at US$ 2-3 billion, and is expected to touch US$ 40 billion by 2017.


  • Merit based student financing

  • Internationalization of education

  • Enable research environment

  • High quality faculty

  • Improved technology for education

  • Employability

  • Assessment and accreditation

  • Integration and interaction

  • Academic reforms

  • Choice Based Credit System

  • Quality assurance

  • New skills

Book “Navigating the Labyrinth: Perspectives on India’s Higher Education” edited by Devesh Kapur and Pratap Bhanu Mehta, Hyderabad – Issues addressed includes commoditized education, problem of commercialization and employability

Gender Equality Charter

  • Proposed for Indian universities on lines of UK universities (started in 2005)

  • Athena SWAN Charter for Women in Science promote employment practices that support women working in higher education and research & is run by UK’s Equality Challenge Unit, bestows bronze, silver and gold awards on institutions

  • Recommendation co-authored by Indian National Science Academy

  • For women in STEMM subjects (Science, Technology, Engineering, Maths and Medicine) – poor ratio is due to lack of parental support, lack of confidence, career breaks for family duties

Literacy Status

  • Post-Independence – 18%

  • Present – 80%

  • Next 5 years – 100% (by HRD minister at Festival of Education in Jaipur)

Revisit Higher Education Policy

  • 1st mentioned in 1986 with no IT, internet and smart classes

  • Now, time to internalization of higher education

  • Students have increased from 1 lakh to 3.5 crore

  • Universities and colleges have increased from 20 and 500 respectively at the time of independence to 800 and 40,000 at present.


  • Higher Education Empowerment Regulation Agency (HEERA) to merge University Grants Commission & All India Council of Technical Education (AICTC)

  • Make all Centrally-funded institutions, including IITs, to participate in international agencies ranking (Times Higher Education and Quacquarelli Symonds)

  • All central universities to increase tuition fees

  • NITs and IISERs to be allowed for 10% hike in fee every year for next 3 years

  • Prof Yash Pal Committee: Way back in 2009 for increased funding for higher education, stricter regulation, monitoring of private entities and implementation

  • ‘Gray Revolution’ can overcome crisis in higher education system by transforming scale and speed, scope and structure, and excellence and impact.

Times Higher Education Rankings 2016-17

India joins elite group of California Institute of Technology from the US, Ecole Normale Superieure from France & Pohang University of Science and Technology from South Korea

Ranks of universities and colleges

2017 Best Small University Rank



Total students

WUR rankings 2016-2017


California Institute of Technology





Ecole Normale Superieure





Pohang University of Science and Technology

South Korea




Ecole Polytechnique





Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa





Scuola Superiore Sant’ Anna





Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon





Indian Institute of Science




WUR Rankings

  • IISc Bangalore (201)

  • IIT Delhi (401)

  • IIT Kanpur (401)

  • IIT Madras (401)

  • IIT Kharagpur (501)

  • IIT Roorkee (501)

  • AMU (601)

  • University of Delhi (601)

Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) System Rankings 2016-17

  • IISc Bangalore (152)

  • IIT Delhi (185)

  • IIT Kanpur (302)

  • IIT Kharagpur (313)

  • IIT Roorkee (399)

  • IIT Guwahati (481)

  • University of Delhi (501)

  • BHU (701)

NIRF Ranking 2017

Ranks of universities and colleges






Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore

Indian Institute of Technology, Madras

Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad


Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi

Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay

Indian Institute of Management Bangalore


Banaras Hindu University

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Indian Institute of Management, Calcutta


Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research

Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi

Indian Institute of Management, Lucknow


Jadavpur University

Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur

Indian Institute of Management, Kozhikode

Global Talent Competitiveness Index (GTCI)

Surveyed by INSEAD and Human Capital Institute, Singapore India ranked 92 of 118

Digital Initiatives in Higher Education

  • Swayam: Indigenously designed massive open online course (MOOC)

  • Swayam Prabha: 32 Direct-to-Home channels for transmitting high-quality educational content

  • National Digital Library: Containing 6.5 million books

  • National Academic Depository: Authenticating all certificates issued by institutions

  • These initiatives will increase Gross Enrollment Ratio (GER) in the higher education from 24.5 (2015-16) to 30 by 2020

NIC Model

  • NIC (NIIT inside Campus) model in universities and colleges across India

  • On-campus, customized education delivery model that is integrated with the institution’s bachelor degree programs, aims to bridge this gap

  • NIIT will offer futuristic programs in MEAN Stack, Big Data & Data Sciences Stack, Design Thinking, Cloud Stack, Internet of Things (IOT) Stack, Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning, Robotics and Virtual Reality and Cyber-Security

  • NIIT is a leading Skills and Talent Development Corporation that is building a manpower pool for global industry requirements and was set up in 1981

Eklavya Model Residential School (EMRS)

  • Initiative by Ministry of Tribal Affairs

  • Started in 1998

  • Started in 2000 by Maharashtra – 1st state

  • Set up school, hostel, staff quarters

  • Equal seats for boys and girls

  • Aim to cover 52,000 tribal students in 26 states with 161 EMRS

National Initiative for Developing & Harnessing Innovations (NIDHI)

  • Platform for young scientist for research and development

  • Innovation in Science Pursuit for Inspired Research (INSPIRE)

  • National Postdoctoral Fellowship (N-PDF)

  • Early Career Research Award (ECRA)

  • Research Associate ship Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) Fellowship Schemes

  • CSIR provides Shyama Prasad Mukherjee Fellowship to certain top ranking JRF- NET qualified candidates for scientific research.

  • Thematic Fellowship programs in Solar Energy, Building Energy Efficiency Higher & Advanced Network, Bioenergy, and Water Research have been initiated by Department of Science & Technology (DST) to support young faculty and research scholars for conducting research in US R&D and academic institutions.

Key Initiatives

  • National Institution for Transforming India (NITI) Aayog is implementing Atal Innovation Mission (AIM) for promoting Incubators and Tinkering Labs

  • MHRD & DST to promote Research Parks

  • Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP) in association with Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI) has set up a Rs. 10, 000 crore Fund to invest in Venture Capital Funds to promote innovations and start-ups

  • Ministry of Micro Small and Medium Industries has a program to setup incubators in the Agriculture sector, under the ASPIRE (‘A Scheme for Promoting Innovation, Rural Industry & Entrepreneurship’) program

  • Department of Bio-Technology has a program to promote incubators in the Biotech sector under the Biotechnology Industry Research Assistance Council (BIRAC) program.

  • MHRD has also launched a Smart India Hackathon for involving engineering students to provide solutions to problems faced by Government Departments.

  • Long Term Core Support through Technological Advancement for Rural Areas (TARA) scheme

  • Technological Intervention for Addressing Societal Needs (TIASN)

  • Technology Application for Livelihood Improvement of Scheduled Caste Population (TALIM-SC)

CSIR Programs

CSIR operated several activities under ‘CSIR-800’ (focused at bringing in desired S&T interventions for improving the quality of life of people at the base of the economic pyramid and removing drudgery in 11th Plan)

  • Food-processing unit set up at CSIR-Centre for High Altitude Biology (CSIR-CeHAB) in the tribal region of Lahaul and Spiti

  • Empowering the selected Women self-help groups in Manipur

  • Training and skill development techniques to terracotta pottery rural artisans across various states

  • Arsenic removal technology and de-fluoridation plants & variety of other water purification plants

  • Popularizing mushroom technology through transfer and training to benefit rural women in North East Sates

  • Medicinal & Aromatic plants (MAPs) and other related technologies for rural development in Jammu & Kashmir region and Western Himalayan region

  • Samadhan Kendra, Rural Information Technology centre to provide details about the agriculture

Dalit University

  • 1st Dalit University to be set up in Hyderabad by 2018

  • Proposal mooted by Telangana Social Welfare Residential Educational Institutions Society (TSWREIS) - runs 268 residential institutions for Dalit students from Class 5 to UG level, besides 39 non-residential play schools with pre-primary education recently sanctioned

  • Special training program called Operation Blue Crystal launched for Dalit MBBS aspirants

Digitize Educational Records

Effort by Sony

  • Using Block chains - centralized ledger for storing educational information, such as degrees, diplomas, tests and more, as a kind of ‘digital transcript.’

  • Aims to prevent fraud & provide access to third-parties for job interviews and assessment

  • Trial in Global Math Challenge

  • System is managed by Sony Global Education, and is built on top of IBM Blockchain using IBM’s Cloud and The Linux Foundation’s Hyper ledger Fabric 1.0 framework

National Skills Qualifications Framework (NSQF)

Competency-based framework that organizes all qualifications according to a series of levels of knowledge, skills and aptitude.

Graded one to ten based on learning outcomes

Specific outcomes expected from implementation of NSQF are:

  • Mobility between vocational and general education by alignment of degrees with NSQF

  • Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL), allowing transition from non-formal to organized job market

  • Standardized, consistent, nationally acceptable outcomes of training across the country through a national quality assurance framework

  • Global mobility of skilled workforce from India, through international equivalence of NSQF

  • Mapping of progression pathways within sectors and cross-sectorally

  • Approval of NOS/QPs as national standards for skill training

National Career Service

  • Initiative launched by Ministry of Labour and Employment

  • Mission Mode Project for establishing quick and efficient career related services

  • Focus on right skill and employment

  • Converges Skill India, Digital India and Make in India

Focus Areas

  • Enhancing career and employment opportunities

  • Enhancing quality of workforce

  • Enhancing female labor force participation

  • Entrepreneurial endeavors

  • Engaging with rural workforce for higher productivity

  • Re-employment (second-life) opportunities

  • Transition of workforce from informal to formal sectors

Employment Exchanges (Compulsory Notification of Vacancies) Act, 1959, makes it compulsory for all establishments with 25 or more employees to notify their vacancies to the respective State EEs.

As of now, 978 Employment Exchanges (EE) and University Employment Guidance Information Bureaus exist in India

As of 31st July 2017

  • Job Seekers Registered: 3.91 crore

  • Employers Registered: 14.86 lakh

  • Jobs Mobilized: 7.07 lakh

  • Job Fairs Organized: 740

Vidyanjali Yojana

School Volunteer Program

Initiative of MHRD, Department of School Education & Literacy to enhance community and private sector involvement in Government run elementary schools across the country under the overall aegis of the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan.

Aims to bring together people willing to volunteer their services at schools which really need them.

Aim to develop new skills in schools. Skills to be targeted:

  • Health care

  • Entertainment and sports

  • Yoga techniques

  • Cleanliness programs

  • Art, Craft and Singing skills

  • Extra classes for subject related topics

Unnat Bharat Abhiyan

  • MHRD program to uplift rural India

  • Grassroot level development

  • Develop rural clusters

  • Launched in collaboration with the Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), National Institutes of Technology (NITs) and other leading Government Engineering Institutes like College of Engineering, Pune

  • Coordinated by IIT, Delhi

State wise Initiatives


  • Universities should adopt villages for rural development

  • Programs of the national importance like Swachh Bharat, Adarsh Gram, Digital India, Make in India and Skill India need participation of universities

  • State has 31 universities and those can participate


  • Royal Global University: Not-for-profit Private University for world class infrastructure to groom bright and talented students across the region

  • 360 Degree Development

  • Create global citizens


  • First with respect to GER in high education among SCs

  • Second with respect to GER in high education among STs

  • Professor Jayashankar Agriculture University, Hyderabad had tripatriate agreement with National Academy of Depository and CVL-Mumbai under the Digital India program.


  • Prof Sunaina Singh, Vice-Chancellor, English and Foreign Languages University (EFLU) now VC of Nalanda University.

  • Sunaina Singh is vice president of ICCR and is first Indian woman to head as president of Shastri Indo-Canadian Institute, the bi-national research institution with headquarters in New Delhi and Calgary under the MHRD and Canadian Government.

Himachal Pradesh

  • Annual Status of Education Report (ASER) – HP beats Kerala in terms of learning outcomes

  • Measure to understand, understand to communicate, and communicate to change

  • Enrolment rate of students (6-14 years) in Himachal Pradesh was 99.8%. It secured 1st rank in achieving learning outcomes in basic reading and mathematics India wide.

West Bengal

Bengali mandatory for all schools – class 1 to 10

Uttar Pradesh

UP Board books replaced by NCERT