Expected Questions for Environment – Nov 2017 NET YouTube Lecture Handouts

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Watch video lecture on YouTube: Expected Questions CBSE NET November 2017 Paper 1: Environment Expected Questions CBSE NET November 2017 Paper 1: Environment
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International Year of Pulses 2016

Cryosphere affects global climate

  • 70% water is stored as fresh water in glaciers

  • In terms of the ice mass and its heat capacity, the Cryosphere is the second largest component of the climate system (after oceans)

  • Its relevance for climate variability and change is based on physical properties, such as its high surface reflectivity (albedo) and the latent heat associated with phase changes, which have a strong impact on the surface energy balance.

  • Highly reflective and protect earth from getting warm

  • It reflects more sunlight than open waters

  • Changes in snow and ice cover affect air temperatures, sea levels, ocean currents, and storm pattern

  • Global-scale decline of snow and ice over many years, especially since 1980 and increasing during the past decade

  • Most mountain glaciers are getting smaller

  • Snow cover is retreating earlier in the spring

  • Sea ice in the Arctic is shrinking in all seasons, mainly in summer

Carbon Sequestration

Carbon Sequestration is the process by which CO2 is captured from the atmosphere for long term storage to slow down the accumulation of greenhouse gases

4 Colour Classification Scheme based on Pollution Index

  • Red (severely polluting)

  • Orange

  • Green

  • White (least pollutant)

Zinnia

  • 1st flower grown in space

  • Red, blue, and green LED lights used to simulate sunlight - growth of the flower

International Solar Alliance

  • To bring solar rich 121 tropical countries located fully or partly between the Tropic of Cancer and Capricorn together to tap solar energy

  • Shared vision to bring clean, renewable solar energy within the reach of all

  • To augment solar power generation in these countries with a view to contribute global sustainable development

  • Achieve the objective of keeping global warming below 2 degree Celsius

  • Function from the Gurgaon based National Institute of Solar Energy (NISE)

6 Solid Waste Management Rules

  • Plastic Waste Management Rule, 2016

  • 15, 000 tonnes of plastic waste generated every day, out of which 9, 000 tonnes is collected and processed, but 6, 000 tonnes of plastic waste not collected.

  • Complete ban on polythene bags in 17 states and UTs

  • NGT imposed an ban on use of non-biodegradable plastic bags less than 50 microns in the entire national capital Delhi with a fine of Rs. 5, 000 on possession

Impact of Climate Change

  • More vector borne diseases

  • Reduced agricultural productivity

  • Increased net primary productivity

  • Warmer seasons

  • Higher rainfall

  • Rise in sea level

  • Higher fresh water supply

Global Wildlife Program

  • Reduce poaching

  • Reduce trafficking

  • Reduce demand

  • Wildlife conservation and crime prevention for sustainable development

  • Promote community based NRM

  • Address illegal wildlife trade across 19 countries in Asia and Africa

  • Exchange knowledge and coordinate in on-ground action

Global Environment Facility

  • International partnership of 183 countries, international institutions, civil society organizations and the private sector that addresses global environmental issues

  • Established on the eve of 1992 Rio Earth Summit to help tackle environmental problems

Kyoto Protocol

  • India became 80th country to accept the amendment relating to the second commitment period (2013 - 2020) of the Kyoto Protocol.

  • First commitment period 2008 – 2012

  • Second commitment period 2013 - 2020

  • Target on GHG emissions

Kigali Amendment

  • India piloted the concept of two base lines and a differentiated phased down time schedule to factor in the needs of developing countries

  • First time in Montreal Protocol - concept of two baseline was adopted both for developed and developing countries

  • On India’s initiative, energy efficiency was included for the first time in the Montreal Protocol as an agreed finance solution while phasing down HFCs.

Dichloromethane

  • Delays recovery of ozone hole

  • Used in paint strippers and degreasers

  • Naturally found in ocean, volcano and microalgae

Indian Railways Organization for Alternate Fuel

  • Explore new environment friendly fuels in Railways

  • Substitution of diesel with CNG/LNG

  • Replacing acetylene and LPG by CNG and LNG for metal cutting

  • Promoting Bio-Diesel Roof top solar generation systems

  • Solar energy on roofs of passenger and freight trains

  • Setting up of waste to energy plants for converting

  • Bio-Waste into energy

  • Developing hydrogen based fuel cell technologies

National Wildlife Action Plan

  • 3rd plan

  • For 2017-2031

  • Rehabilitation of threatened species

  • Ban on certain activities

  • Regulation of tourism

  • Law enforcement

Project Varshadhari

Cloud Seeding Project in Karnataka – AgI, NaCl, KCl

Global Innovation Index

Top nations – Switzerland > Sweden > Netherlands

National Adaptation Fund for Climate Change

  • Launched in 2015

  • Implemented by NABARD

  • Adaption program, updating climatic scenario, capacity building

  • Projects in 3 states – Sikkim (climate change), Rajasthan (water) and Gujarat (livelihood for natural resource dependent community)

Biome thane

  • By India’s largest Commercial Vehicles manufacturer Tata Motors

  • First Bio-CNG (bio-methane) bus at Urja Utsav, bio-energy programme, organized by the Union Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas

National Strategic Plan for Malaria Elimination

  • 1st phase by 2022 in 2 categories

  • Total elimination by 2027

  • Vector borne disease

  • Caused by parasite Plasmodium falciparum (Pf), found more in the forest areas and Plasmodium Vivax (Pv), more common in the plains.

Cleaner Railways

  • Avoid PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) – carcinogenic and mutagenic & heavy metals

  • CNG based dual fuel system on DEMU trains

  • Use of methanol as alternative

  • 5% bio-diesel blend in locomotives

  • Solar power generation system in railways

Ban on Chemicals in Fireworks

  • Antimony – eye, skin and lungs

  • Lithium – diahhrea, muscle weakness, fatigue

  • Mercury – nervous system

  • Arsenic – liver, cancer in lungs, skin, bladder and kidney

  • Lead – brain & nervous system, high BP

  • Cadmium – kidney and lung

  • Zinc - blood

Given by PESO (Petroleum and Explosives Safety Organization)

Sagar Vani – Cyclone Alert

  • Stage 1: Pre Cyclone Watch

  • Stage 2: Cyclone Alert - yellow

  • Stage 3: Cyclone Warning - orange

  • Stage 4: Post Landfall Outlook – red

Green Climate Fund

  • Under UNFCC

  • Assist developing countries to counter climate change

  • Based in Incheon, S. Korea

Castor Seed Plant

  • Fight soil pollution by absorbing heavy metals from pollution

  • For treatment of skin, arthritis, skin problems

  • Used in cosmetics, for colic pain, joint pain

Solar Energy

Highest installed capacity – AP>Gujarat> Karnataka

National Afforestation Program

Physical and capacity building to Forest Development Agencies for Joint Forest Management

Green India Mission

  • Plantation and Compensatory afforestation

  • Increase forest cover to 5 million hectares (mha) and improve quality of tree cover on another 5 mha of forest or non-forest lands- wetland, grassland, dense forest etc.

Interlinking of Rivers

Work on Three River Interlinking Projects to Begin

IUCN Classification

Watch video lecture on YouTube: IUCN and Red Data List - Knowing about Biodiversity IUCN and Red Data List - Knowing About Biodiversity
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Biodiversity

Watch video lecture on YouTube: Biodiversity: Types, Patterns, Importance, Causes and Loss Biodiversity: Types, Patterns, Importance, Causes and Loss
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Expected Questions on Environment and Biodiversity

Part 1:

Watch video lecture on YouTube: Expected Questions on Environment and Biodiversity Part 1 - UPSC IAS Prelims & Mains / NET 2017 Expected Questions on Environment and Biodiversity Part 1 - UPSC IAS Prelims & Mains / NET 2017
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Part 2:

Watch video lecture on YouTube: Expected Questions on Environment and Biodiversity Part 2 - UPSC IAS Prelims & Mains / NET 2017 Expected Questions on Environment and Biodiversity Part 2 - UPSC IAS Prelims & Mains / NET 2017
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Important:

Watch video lecture on YouTube: Expected Questions CBSE NET November 2017 Paper 1: Environment & Geography Expected Questions CBSE NET November 2017 Paper 1: Environment & Geography
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Environmental Conventions

Watch video lecture on YouTube: 30 Environmental Conventions & Agreements in 15 minutes (Besides Earth Summit) 30 Environmental Conventions & Agreements in 15 Minutes (Besides Earth Summit)
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Major Pollutants

  • Sulfur dioxide. ...

  • Oxides of nitrogen. ...

  • Hydrocarbons. ...

  • Methane. ...

  • Oxides of carbon. ...

  • Suspended particulates in the troposphere. ...

  • Lead compounds

Other Important Topics

  • Waste to Wealth (New source for renewable Energy)

  • Urban Waste Segregation (Dry and Wet Waste)

  • Carbon trading

  • Global warming and greenhouse effect