Expected Questions for Environment – Nov 2017 NET YouTube Lecture Handouts

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Watch video lecture on YouTube: Expected Questions CBSE NET November 2017 Paper 1: Environment

Expected Questions CBSE NET November 2017 Paper 1: Environment

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International Year of Pulses 2016

Cryosphere affects global climate

  • 70% water is stored as fresh water in glaciers

  • In terms of the ice mass and its heat capacity, the Cryosphere is the second largest component of the climate system (after oceans)

  • Its relevance for climate variability and change is based on physical properties, such as its high surface reflectivity (albedo) and the latent heat associated with phase changes, which have a strong impact on the surface energy balance.

  • Highly reflective and protect earth from getting warm

  • It reflects more sunlight than open waters

  • Changes in snow and ice cover affect air temperatures, sea levels, ocean currents, and storm pattern

  • Global-scale decline of snow and ice over many years, especially since 1980 and increasing during the past decade

  • Most mountain glaciers are getting smaller

  • Snow cover is retreating earlier in the spring

  • Sea ice in the Arctic is shrinking in all seasons, mainly in summer

Carbon Sequestration

  • Carbon Sequestration is the process by which CO2 is captured from the atmosphere for long term storage to slow down the accumulation of greenhouse gases

4 Colour Classification Scheme based on Pollution Index

  • Red (severely polluting)

  • Orange

  • Green

  • White (least pollutant)


  • 1st flower grown in space

  • Red, blue, and green LED lights used to simulate sunlight - growth of the flower

International Solar Alliance

  • To bring solar rich 121 tropical countries located fully or partly between the Tropic of Cancer and Capricorn together to tap solar energy

  • Shared vision to bring clean, renewable solar energy within the reach of all

  • To augment solar power generation in these countries with a view to contribute global sustainable development

  • Achieve the objective of keeping global warming below 2 degree Celsius

  • Function from the Gurgaon based National Institute of Solar Energy (NISE)

6 Solid Waste Management Rules

  • Plastic Waste Management Rule, 2016

  • 15, 000 tonnes of plastic waste generated every day, out of which 9, 000 tonnes is collected and processed, but 6, 000 tonnes of plastic waste not collected.

  • Complete ban on polythene bags in 17 states and UTs

  • NGT imposed an ban on use of non-biodegradable plastic bags less than 50 microns in the entire national capital Delhi with a fine of Rs. 5, 000 on possession

Impact of Climate Change

  • More vector borne diseases

  • Reduced agricultural productivity

  • Increased net primary productivity

  • Warmer seasons

  • Higher rainfall

  • Rise in sea level

  • Higher fresh water supply

Global Wildlife Program

  • Reduce poaching

  • Reduce trafficking

  • Reduce demand

  • Wildlife conservation and crime prevention for sustainable development

  • Promote community based NRM

  • Address illegal wildlife trade across 19 countries in Asia and Africa

  • Exchange knowledge and coordinate in on-ground action

Global Environment Facility

  • International partnership of 183 countries, international institutions, civil society organizations and the private sector that addresses global environmental issues

  • Established on the eve of 1992 Rio Earth Summit to help tackle environmental problems

Kyoto Protocol

  • India became 80th country to accept the amendment relating to the second commitment period (2013 - 2020) of the Kyoto Protocol.

  • First commitment period 2008 – 2012

  • Second commitment period 2013 - 2020

  • Target on GHG emissions

Kigali Amendment

  • India piloted the concept of two base lines and a differentiated phased down time schedule to factor in the needs of developing countries

  • First time in Montreal Protocol - concept of two baseline was adopted both for developed and developing countries

  • On India’s initiative, energy efficiency was included for the first time in the Montreal Protocol as an agreed finance solution while phasing down HFCs.


  • Delays recovery of ozone hole

  • Used in paint strippers and degreasers

  • Naturally found in ocean, volcano and microalgae

Indian Railways Organization for Alternate Fuel

  • Explore new environment friendly fuels in Railways

  • Substitution of diesel with CNG/LNG

  • Replacing acetylene and LPG by CNG and LNG for metal cutting

  • Promoting Bio-Diesel Roof top solar generation systems

  • Solar energy on roofs of passenger and freight trains

  • Setting up of waste to energy plants for converting

  • Bio-Waste into energy

  • Developing hydrogen based fuel cell technologies

National Wildlife Action Plan

  • 3rd plan

  • For 2017-2031

  • Rehabilitation of threatened species

  • Ban on certain activities

  • Regulation of tourism

  • Law enforcement

Project Varshadhari

  • Cloud Seeding Project in Karnataka – AgI, NaCl, KCl

Global Innovation Index

  • Top nations – Switzerland > Sweden > Netherlands

National Adaptation Fund for Climate Change

  • Launched in 2015

  • Implemented by NABARD

  • Adaption program, updating climatic scenario, capacity building

  • Projects in 3 states – Sikkim (climate change), Rajasthan (water) and Gujarat (livelihood for natural resource dependent community)

Biome thane

  • By India’s largest Commercial Vehicles manufacturer Tata Motors

  • First Bio-CNG (bio-methane) bus at Urja Utsav, bio-energy programme, organized by the Union Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas

National Strategic Plan for Malaria Elimination

  • 1st phase by 2022 in 2 categories

  • Total elimination by 2027

  • Vector borne disease

  • Caused by parasite Plasmodium falciparum (Pf), found more in the forest areas and Plasmodium Vivax (Pv), more common in the plains.

Cleaner Railways

  • Avoid PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) – carcinogenic and mutagenic & heavy metals

  • CNG based dual fuel system on DEMU trains

  • Use of methanol as alternative

  • 5% bio-diesel blend in locomotives

  • Solar power generation system in railways

Ban on Chemicals in Fireworks

  • Antimony – eye, skin and lungs

  • Lithium – diahhrea, muscle weakness, fatigue

  • Mercury – nervous system

  • Arsenic – liver, cancer in lungs, skin, bladder and kidney

  • Lead – brain & nervous system, high BP

  • Cadmium – kidney and lung

  • Zinc - blood

Given by PESO (Petroleum and Explosives Safety Organization)

Sagar Vani – Cyclone Alert

  • Stage 1: Pre Cyclone Watch

  • Stage 2: Cyclone Alert - yellow

  • Stage 3: Cyclone Warning - orange

  • Stage 4: Post Landfall Outlook – red

Green Climate Fund

  • Under UNFCC

  • Assist developing countries to counter climate change

  • Based in Incheon, S. Korea

Castor Seed Plant

  • Fight soil pollution by absorbing heavy metals from pollution

  • For treatment of skin, arthritis, skin problems

  • Used in cosmetics, for colic pain, joint pain

Solar Energy

  • Highest installed capacity – AP>Gujarat> Karnataka

National Afforestation Program

  • Physical and capacity building to Forest Development Agencies for Joint Forest Management

Green India Mission

  • Plantation and Compensatory afforestation

  • Increase forest cover to 5 million hectares (mha) and improve quality of tree cover on another 5 mha of forest or non-forest lands- wetland, grassland, dense forest etc.

Interlinking of Rivers

Work on Three River Interlinking Projects to Begin

IUCN Classification

Watch video lecture on YouTube: IUCN and Red Data List - Knowing about Biodiversity

IUCN and Red Data List - Knowing About Biodiversity

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Watch video lecture on YouTube: Biodiversity: Types, Patterns, Importance, Causes and Loss

Biodiversity: Types, Patterns, Importance, Causes and Loss

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Expected Questions on Environment and Biodiversity

Part 1:

Watch video lecture on YouTube: Expected Questions on Environment and Biodiversity Part 1 - UPSC IAS Prelims & Mains / NET 2017

Expected Questions on Environment and Biodiversity Part 1 - UPSC IAS Prelims & Mains / NET 2017

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Part 2:

Watch video lecture on YouTube: Expected Questions on Environment and Biodiversity Part 2 - UPSC IAS Prelims & Mains / NET 2017

Expected Questions on Environment and Biodiversity Part 2 - UPSC IAS Prelims & Mains / NET 2017

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Watch video lecture on YouTube: Expected Questions CBSE NET November 2017 Paper 1: Environment & Geography

Expected Questions CBSE NET November 2017 Paper 1: Environment & Geography

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Environmental Conventions

Watch video lecture on YouTube: 30 Environmental Conventions & Agreements in 15 minutes (Besides Earth Summit)

30 Environmental Conventions & Agreements in 15 Minutes (Besides Earth Summit)

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Major Pollutants

  • Sulfur dioxide. ...

  • Oxides of nitrogen. ...

  • Hydrocarbons. ...

  • Methane. ...

  • Oxides of carbon. ...

  • Suspended particulates in the troposphere. ...

  • Lead compounds

Other Important Topics

  • Waste to Wealth (New source for renewable Energy)

  • Urban Waste Segregation (Dry and Wet Waste)

  • Carbon trading

  • Global warming and greenhouse effect