Expected Questions for Polity – Nov 2017 NET YouTube Lecture Handouts

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Watch video lecture on YouTube: Expected Questions CBSE NET November 2017 Paper 1: Polity & Governance Expected Questions CBSE NET November 2017 Paper 1: Polity & Governance
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Presidential Election

Watch video lecture on YouTube: President of India – Election Process, Eligibility, Powers & Differences with US President President of India – Election Process, Eligibility, Powers & Differences with US President
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Freeze delimitation till 2026 (constitutional amendment)

Vice President Election & Eligibility

Rajya Sabha Elections

  • Recently in Gujarat – 2 votes were invalidated

  • Conduct of Election Rules 1961, Rajya Sabha elections calls for a ballot-in-secret.

  • Rule 39A mandates that the elector cannot declare his/her ballot to anyone.

  • Secrecy as duty based and right based

  • Open ballots are used in the Rajya Sabha elections.

  • RS elections follow a proportional representation system based on the single transferable vote. Unlike LS general elections, which are conducted with secret ballots (or votes) and based on the first-past-the-post principle.

NOTA

  • None of the above (NOTA) is a ballot option designed to allow the voter to indicate disapproval of all of the candidates in a voting system.

  • Introduced in 2013

  • Does not provide for right to reject

Election Commission of India

  • 3 member body

  • Article 324(2), President appoints CEC & 2 ECs for 6 years or 65 years of age

  • Must have neutral and independent selection committee’ to recommend names for the post

Electoral Reforms – Issued Raised

  • Paid news

  • Ban of corporate donations

  • First-past-the-post system (candidate with the most votes in the constituency wins) to be replaced by proportional representation system

  • Reservation of Women

  • NRI voting

VVPATs

  • Voter Verifiable Paper Audit Trail

  • First used in a by-election in Nagaland in 2013

  • Paper slip remains visible on the VVPAT for seven seconds through a transparent window

  • Used along with EVM

  • Printed slips can be counted to verify the results

Triple Talaq

  • Banned in Pakistan & Bangladesh in 1961

  • In 2017, deemed unconstitutional in India

  • Shayara Bano v. Union of India

Taxation Laws (Amendment Bill) 2016

  • Tax incentive in commercial sector

  • Amend Income Tax Act 1961 (demerger of PSU and deduction in employment of new employee in textile sector to 150 days from 240 days)

  • Amend Customs Tariff Act 1975 (Increase custom on granite and marble)

Indian Medical Council (Amendment) Bill, 2016

  • Bring private colleges under IMC act

  • Conduct of uniform entrance exam to all medical educational institutions (NEET)

Scheduled Tribes Status

  • ST status increased from 246 in 1960 to 700 as of now

  • STs are specified by the President after consultation with the Governor.

  • Narikuravar – Semi-nomadic tribe similar to Roma in Europe – illiteracy and unemployment – to shift them from OBC to ST

Special Category Status

Given in 5th Finance Commission in 1969

Manipur SCS status revoked – now get only 30% central help in contrast to 90% before

Aadhaar

  • Aadhaar- 12 digit unique-identity number issued to all Indian residents.

  • This is based on their biometric and demographic data, and notably is a proof of residence and not a proof of citizenship.

  • Data is collected by Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI)

Finance Commission

  • 15th FC about to be formed

  • Autonomous body

  • Established by President of India under Article 280

  • To define the financial relations between the central government of India and the individual state governments

  • Term is 5 years with Chairman and 4 members

  • Now – GST & focus shifted from state of origin to destination

Central Board of Film Certification (CBFC)

  • Did not clear Amartya Sen documentary ‘The Argumentative Indian’. Asked to remove words such as “Cow”, “Gujarat”, “Hindutva” and “Hindu Rashtra” which are expunged or beeped out.

  • Statutory body under Ministry of Information and Broadcasting

National Commission for Backward Classes (NCBC)

  • Under the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment established on 14 August 1993

  • Bill passed in April 2017 to grant it constitutional status

Part XVII of Constitution

  • Chapter 1: Hindi as official language of India

  • Chapter 2: Regional languages

  • Chapter 3: Language of SC, HC or any legal text will be English

  • Chapter 4: Special deriatives

  • Parliamentary Committee on Official Language recommended to the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) to make Hindi compulsory in all CBSE-affiliated schools till Class X.

Tenth Schedule of Constitution

2 conditions under which a member of a political party may be disqualified

  • Voluntarily giving up their membership

  • When a whip is disobeyed

Article 142

  • Empowers the SC to pass any decree or order necessary for doing “complete justice” in any matter pending before it.

  • Ban on sale of liquor

  • In case of Union Carbide – Bhopal gas tragedy

  • Ban sale of diesel cars with an engine capacity of 2000 cc

Article 326

  • Provides for universal adult suffrage

  • Does not specifically mention the right to vote

Article 340

Identify “socially and educationally backward classes”, understand the conditions of their backwardness, and make recommendations to remove the difficulties they face.

Article 35A

Allows the Jammu and Kashmir legislature to define the list of ‘permanent residents’ of the state, who -

  • Are eligible to vote

  • Can work for the state government

  • Can own land, buy property

  • Can secure public employment and college admissions, etc.

It offers J&K special position

Aim to address the flaws in article rather repeal it

Appointment of Lokpal

  • Leader of Opposition to be part of selection committee of Lokpal

  • 2nd largest party must have 10% seats to get status of Opposition Party

Recall Election

  • Also recall referendum

  • Procedure by which voters can remove an elected official from office through a direct vote before their term has ended.

Sedition Law

  • Drafted by Thomas Macaulay

  • Introduced in the 1870s

  • Dealt with increasing Wahabi activities that posed a challenge to the colonial government.

  • Section 124a in IPC makes "words, either spoken or written, or by signs, or by visible representation, or otherwise, brings or attempts to bring into hatred or contempt, or excites or attempts to excite disaffection towards the government" punishable by law, a fine and a maximum punishment of life imprisonment.

Right to Privacy

Watch video lecture on YouTube: NCERT Class 8 Political Science / Polity / Civics Chapter 1: The Indian Constitution NCERT Class 8 Political Science / Polity / Civics Chapter 1: The Indian Constitution
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Collegium System

  • Comprises of CJI and a forum of four senior-most judges of the SC.

  • It recommends on appointments and transfers of judges.

  • Appointment of judges by judges-selecting-judges

Status of Rivers

  • Uttarakhand High Court declared the rivers Yamuna and Ganga as legal or juridical persons, enjoying all the rights, duties and liabilities of a living person.

  • It is the first time that an element of the natural environment has been declared a legal person.

  • Indian courts, previously have granted this status to temple deities, religious books, corporations, etc.

  • Extraordinary situation and parens patriae (parent of country – power of sovereign and not court to provide protection)

NITI Ayog

  • National Nutrition Policy – Kuposhan Mukt Bharat. Worst states – AP >TN > Gujarat > Maharashtra > Odisha. NFHS-4 (2014-15) – National Family Health Survey

  • Darpan Portal: Mandatory for all NGOs and voluntary organisations (VOs) to register with NITI Aayog to receive grant-in-aid from ministries or departments of the central government.

Gorkhaland

  • Separate state demand

  • Darjeeling and Kalimpong districts

  • Linguistic and cultural difference to Bengali

  • 8th Schedule of the Constitution lists Nepali as the official language of Darjeeling district as well as of Sikkim.

  • Bodoland Tribal Area Districts of Assam and the Indigenous Peoples’ Front of Tripura will start demand

Manav Suraksha Kanoon (Masuka)

  • New law proposed by the National Campaign against Mob Lynching to protect people.

  • To provide effective protection to vulnerable persons, punish acts of lynching, and provide rehabilitation and compensation for victims and their families.

  • To curb and punish mob lynching, whether provoked in the name of the cow protection or any other reason

  • In lieu of UP government’s ban on cow slaughter

Human Shield

  • Military and political term describing the deliberate placement of non-combatants in or around combat targets to deter the enemy from attacking these combat targets

  • Farooq Ahmed Dar – J&K

  • Budgam Incident is a violation of the Geneva Convention, also violation of the Constitution of India and the military code.

Rohingya Crisis

  • Background

  • Kofi Annan Foundation and Advisory Commission on Rakhine State Report

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