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Definitions - Types, 3 Major and 5 Minor Classification - Essentials of Logic

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Definitions

The definitions and its types. Usually 1-2 questions are asked in Paper 1 based on this topic.

1. Formal vs. Extended2. Intensional vs. Extensional3. Denotative vs. Connotative

Definitions Image

Definitions Image

Definitions Image

Understanding Definition

Equation

Making Meaning Clear

Formal vs. Extended

  • Water is a liquid which consists of two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen.

  • Water is a liquid which consists of two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen. It is colorless, tasteless, and odorless. It boils at 100 degrees Celsius, and freezes at 0 degrees Celsius.

Intensional vs. Extensional

Intensional vs. Extensional Image

Intensional vs. Extensional Image

Intensional vs. Extensional Image

Denotative vs. Connotative

5 Rules of Connotative Definition

  1. Focus on Essential Feature

  2. No Circularity

  3. Capture Correct Extension

  4. Avoid Figurative Language

  5. Be Affirmative

Types of Extensional Definitions

  • Ostensive: (Extensional) - Merely points out an object referred by a term. (HINT: Red Color)

  • Quasi-ostensive: (Extensional) - Point object referred to by the term & also describes it. (HINT: Yellow Color - Lemon)

  • By Example

Types of Intensional Definition

  • Etymological Definition: Origin of Word (Geos + Graphis)

  • By Synonym: By Meaning

  • Operational Definition: In Science & Conditional, Something is X only and only if….

  • Genus vs. Differentia

Lexical / Reportive Definition

  • Existing Meaning of Term

  • Make term precise ( Equation )

  • For Example,

  • Prime Number: Number Divisible by 1 and Itself

  • How to Define Color Red?

Stipulative Definition

  • Arbitrarily assign meaning to newly introduced symbol

  • For Example,

  • CAT - Common Aptitude Test

  • CAT – Come At Time

Precising Definition

  • Eliminate Ambiguity or Vagueness

  • Senior Citizens will get Discount on Railway Booking. (HINT: Age not Defined)

Theoretical Definition

  • Help in General Understanding or Scientific Practice

Persuasive Definition

  • Influence Attitude or Stir Emotions