3 Writing Styles-APA, Chicago & MLA YouTube Lecture Handouts

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3 Writing Styles

  • APA

  • Chicago

  • MLA

Citiations: Why Important?

  • Formatting in research papers

  • Standard acceptable method for citiation

  • Avoids plagiarism

  • Builds your credibility and shows that your ideas are shared by other scholars studying in the same field

  • Provide all of the information so that reader can find the book/article cited

Chicago (Turabian)

  • Used since 1906

  • For all subject matter: historical journals, geography, sociology, anthropology & social sciences

  • By University of Chicago Press

  • Uses Footnotes – by Superscripted numerals

  • Or Use In-Text Citations

  • Use only page number on upper right, if heading appears on top then use page number at bottom

  • Entire first and last name

APA Style

  • Origin: 1929

  • Social sciences: Business, criminal justice, economics, law

  • Medical subjects: Nursing and psychology

  • Create by American Psychological Association

  • Uses only In-text citations

  • Page number on upper right with title on left

  • Only the initials of the first and middle name of each author

  • Reduce bias in writing about gender, race, and other areas where discrimination is possible

  • Year in Focus: If the research study citing is current and recent, or an arcane example of an "earlier theory" which has been debunked

MLA Style

  • 1st published by Modern Language Association of America in 1985.

  • Used in humanities & literature

  • Features brief parenthetical citations in the text keyed to an alphabetical list of works cited that appears at the end of the work (Smith 126)

Writing Style Differences

  • ACS (American Chemical Society) - Chemistry

  • AIP (American Institute of Physics) - Physics

  • ALWD (Association of Legal Writing Directors) - Legal Studies

  • AMA (American Medical Association) - Medical Sciences

  • AMS (American Mathematical Society) - Mathematics

  • APSA (American Political Science Association) - Political Science, International Studies

  • ASA (American Sociological Association) - Sociology

  • AP (Associated Press) - Journalism, Public Relations

  • Bluebook - Legal Studies

  • CSE (Council of Science Editors) - Biology

  • Harvard Business School - Business

  • LSA (Linguistic Society of America) - Linguistics

  • Maroonbook - Legal Studies

  • NLM (National Library of Medicine) - Medicine