3 Writing Styles-APA, Chicago & MLA YouTube Lecture Handouts

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3 Writing Styles

  • APA

  • Chicago

  • MLA

Citiations: Why Important?

  • Formatting in research papers

  • Standard acceptable method for citiation

  • Avoids plagiarism

  • Builds your credibility and shows that your ideas are shared by other scholars studying in the same field

  • Provide all of the information so that reader can find the book/article cited

Chicago (Turabian)

  • Used since 1906

  • For all subject matter: historical journals, geography, sociology, anthropology & social sciences

  • By University of Chicago Press

  • Uses Footnotes – by Superscripted numerals

  • Or Use In-Text Citations

  • Use only page number on upper right, if heading appears on top then use page number at bottom

  • Entire first and last name

APA Style

  • Origin: 1929

  • Social sciences: Business, criminal justice, economics, law

  • Medical subjects: Nursing and psychology

  • Create by American Psychological Association

  • Uses only In-text citations

  • Page number on upper right with title on left

  • Only the initials of the first and middle name of each author

  • Reduce bias in writing about gender, race, and other areas where discrimination is possible

  • Year in Focus: If the research study citing is current and recent, or an arcane example of an "earlier theory" which has been debunked

MLA Style

  • 1st published by Modern Language Association of America in 1985.

  • Used in humanities & literature

  • Features brief parenthetical citations in the text keyed to an alphabetical list of works cited that appears at the end of the work (Smith 126)

Image of MLA Style

Image of MLA Style

Image of MLA Style

Writing Style Differences

Writing Style Differences

Writing Style Differences

Writing Style Differences

  • ACS (American Chemical Society) - Chemistry

  • AIP (American Institute of Physics) - Physics

  • ALWD (Association of Legal Writing Directors) - Legal Studies

  • AMA (American Medical Association) - Medical Sciences

  • AMS (American Mathematical Society) - Mathematics

  • APSA (American Political Science Association) - Political Science, International Studies

  • ASA (American Sociological Association) - Sociology

  • AP (Associated Press) - Journalism, Public Relations

  • Bluebook - Legal Studies

  • CSE (Council of Science Editors) - Biology

  • Harvard Business School - Business

  • LSA (Linguistic Society of America) - Linguistics

  • Maroonbook - Legal Studies

  • NLM (National Library of Medicine) - Medicine

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