Terminology in Psychology CBSE (UGC)-NET Part 3
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Humanism: An approach that focuses on human experience, problems, potentials, and ideals.
Hypnosis: An altered state of consciousness characterized by narrowed attention and increased suggestibility.
Hypothalamus: A small area of the brain that regulates emotional behaviors and motives.
Hypothesis: A statement of the predicted outcome of an experiment or an educated guess about the relationship between variables.
Iconic memory: A mental image or visual representation.
Illusion: A misleading or misconstructed perception.
Independent Variable: In experimental settings, the stimulus condition whose values are free to vary independently of any other variable in the situation
Insanity : The legal (not clinical) designation for the state of an individual judged to be legally irresponsible or incompetent.
Intelligence: An overall capacity to think rationally, act purposefully, and adapt to one’s surroundings.
Intelligence Quotient (IQ): An intelligence test score that for people of average intelligence should be near 100.
Interference: The tendency for new memories to impair retrieval of older memories, and the reverse.
Jigsaw Classrooms: Classrooms that use a technique known as jigsawing, in which each pupil is given part of the total material to master and then share with other group members.
Keyword method: As an aid to memory, using a familiar word or image to link two items.
Latent Content: In Freudian dream analysis, the hidden meaning of a dream
Law of effect: Responses that lead to desirable effects are repeated; those that produce undesirable results are not.
Learned helplessness: A learned inability to overcome obstacles or to avoid punishment; learned passivity and inaction to aversive stimuli.
Learning: Any relatively permanent change in behavior that can be attributed to experience.
Long-term memory (LTM): The memory system used for relatively permanent storage of meaningful information.
Manifest content (of dreams): The surface, visible content of a dream; dream images as they are remembered by the dreamer.
Massed practice: Practice done in a long. Uninterrupted study session.
Maturation: The physical growth and development of the body, brain, and nervous system.
Meditation: A mental exercise for producing relaxation or heightened awareness.
Memory: The mental capacity to encode, store, and retrieve information
Mental Age: The average test score received by individuals of a given chronological age.
Mental Set: Students’ readiness to begin a lesson
Mnemonic: A memory aid or strategy.
Mood disorder: Major disturbances in mood or emotion, such as depression or mania.
Motivation: Internal process that initiate, sustain, direct, and terminate activities.
Multiple Intelligences: In Gardner’s theory of intelligence, a person’s seven separate
Natural selection: Darwin’s theory that evolution favors those plants and animals best suited to their living conditions.
Need For Achievement (N Ach): An assumed basic human need to strive for achievement of goals that motivates a wide range of behavior and thinking
Negative punishment (Response cost): Removal of a positive reinforce after a response is made.
Negative reinforcement: Occurs when a response is followed by an end to discomfort or by the removal of an unpleasant event.
Neurotransmitter: Any chemical released by a neuron that alters activity in other neurons.
Neutral stimulus: A stimulus that does not evoke a response.
Non-REM (NREM) sleep: Non-rapid eye movement sleep characteristic of Stages 2, 3, and 4.
Norms: Standards based on measurements of a large group of people; used for comparing the scores of an individual with those of others within a well‑defined group.
Object Permanence: Knowing an object exists when it is out of sight.
Observer Bias: The distortion of evidence because of the personal motives and expectations of the viewer
Obsessive-compulsive disorder: An extreme preoccupation with certain thoughts and compulsive performance of certain behaviors.
Occipital lobes: Portion of the cerebral cortex in which vision registers in the brain.
Operant conditioning: Learning based on the consequences of responding.
Opponent-process theory: Theory of color vision based on three coding system (red or green, yellow or blue, black or white).
Overlearning: Continuing to study and learn after you think you’ve mastered a topic.
Parasympathetic branch: The branch of the ANS that quiets the body.
Parental styles: Identifiable patterns of parental caretaking and interaction with children.