Terminology in Psychology CBSE (UGC)-NET Part 3

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Humanism: An approach that focuses on human experience, problems, potentials, and ideals.

Hypnosis: An altered state of consciousness characterized by narrowed attention and increased suggestibility.

Hypothalamus: A small area of the brain that regulates emotional behaviors and motives.

Hypothesis: A statement of the predicted outcome of an experiment or an educated guess about the relationship between variables.

Iconic memory: A mental image or visual representation.

Illusion: A misleading or misconstructed perception.

Independent Variable: In experimental settings, the stimulus condition whose values are free to vary independently of any other variable in the situation

Insanity : The legal (not clinical) designation for the state of an individual judged to be legally irresponsible or incompetent.

Intelligence: An overall capacity to think rationally, act purposefully, and adapt to one’s surroundings.

Intelligence Quotient (IQ): An intelligence test score that for people of average intelligence should be near 100.

Interference: The tendency for new memories to impair retrieval of older memories, and the reverse.

Jigsaw Classrooms: Classrooms that use a technique known as jigsawing, in which each pupil is given part of the total material to master and then share with other group members.

Keyword method: As an aid to memory, using a familiar word or image to link two items.

Latent Content: In Freudian dream analysis, the hidden meaning of a dream

Law of effect: Responses that lead to desirable effects are repeated; those that produce undesirable results are not.

Learned helplessness: A learned inability to overcome obstacles or to avoid punishment; learned passivity and inaction to aversive stimuli.

Learning: Any relatively permanent change in behavior that can be attributed to experience.

Long-term memory (LTM): The memory system used for relatively permanent storage of meaningful information.

Manifest content (of dreams): The surface, visible content of a dream; dream images as they are remembered by the dreamer.

Massed practice: Practice done in a long. Uninterrupted study session.

Maturation: The physical growth and development of the body, brain, and nervous system.

Meditation: A mental exercise for producing relaxation or heightened awareness.

Memory: The mental capacity to encode, store, and retrieve information

Mental Age: The average test score received by individuals of a given chronological age.

Mental Set: Students’ readiness to begin a lesson

Mnemonic: A memory aid or strategy.

Mood disorder: Major disturbances in mood or emotion, such as depression or mania.

Motivation: Internal process that initiate, sustain, direct, and terminate activities.

Multiple Intelligences: In Gardner’s theory of intelligence, a person’s seven separate

Natural selection: Darwin’s theory that evolution favors those plants and animals best suited to their living conditions.

Need For Achievement (N Ach): An assumed basic human need to strive for achievement of goals that motivates a wide range of behavior and thinking

Negative punishment (Response cost): Removal of a positive reinforce after a response is made.

Negative reinforcement: Occurs when a response is followed by an end to discomfort or by the removal of an unpleasant event.

Neurotransmitter: Any chemical released by a neuron that alters activity in other neurons.

Neutral stimulus: A stimulus that does not evoke a response.

Non-REM (NREM) sleep: Non-rapid eye movement sleep characteristic of Stages 2, 3, and 4.

Norms: Standards based on measurements of a large group of people; used for comparing the scores of an individual with those of others within a well‑defined group.

Object Permanence: Knowing an object exists when it is out of sight.

Observer Bias: The distortion of evidence because of the personal motives and expectations of the viewer

Obsessive-compulsive disorder: An extreme preoccupation with certain thoughts and compulsive performance of certain behaviors.

Occipital lobes: Portion of the cerebral cortex in which vision registers in the brain.

Operant conditioning: Learning based on the consequences of responding.

Opponent-process theory: Theory of color vision based on three coding system (red or green, yellow or blue, black or white).

Overlearning: Continuing to study and learn after you think you’ve mastered a topic.

Parasympathetic branch: The branch of the ANS that quiets the body.

Parental styles: Identifiable patterns of parental caretaking and interaction with children.