Terminology in Psychology CBSE (UGC)-NET Part 4
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Perception: The mental process of organizing sensations into meaningful patterns.
Peripheral nervous system (PNS): All parts of the nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord.
Personality: A person’s unique and relatively stable patterns of thinking, emotions, and behavior.
Personality disorder: A maladaptive personality pattern.
Personality type: A style of personality defined by a group of related traits.
Place theory: Theory that higher and lower tones excite specific area of the cochlea.
Positive reainforcement : Occurs when a response is followed by a reward or other positive event.
Prejudice: A negative emotional attitude held against members of a particular group of people.
Preoperational Stage: Stage at which children learn mentally to represent things
Primary Reinforcers: Biologically determined reinforcers such as food and water
Priming: Facilitating the retrieval of an implicit memory by using cues to activate hidden memories.
Procedural memory: Long-term memories of conditioned responses and learned skills.
Programmed Instruction: Structured lessons that students can work on individually at their own pace
Projective tests: Psychological tests making use of ambiguous or unstructured stimuli.
ProSocial Behaviors: Actions that show respect and caring for others
Prototype: The most representative example of a category
Psychoanalysis: The form of psychodynamic therapy developed by Freud; an intensive and prolonged technique for exploring unconscious motivations and conflicts in neurotic, anxiety‑ridden individuals
Psychodynamic theory: Any theory of behavior that emphasizes internal conflicts, motives, and unconscious forces.
Psychological Dependence: The psychological need or craving for a drug
Psychologist: A person highly trained in the methods, factual knowledge, and theories of psychology.
Psychology: The scientific study of overt behavior and mental processes (convert behavior).
Psychophysics: The study of the correspondence between physical stimulation and psychological experience
Psychotherapy: Any psychological technique used to facilitate positive changes in a person’s personality, behavior, or adjustment.
Punishment: Using unpleasant consequences to weaken a behavior
Random assignment: The use of chance (for example, flipping a coin) to assign subjects to experimental and control groups.
Rapid eye movements (REMs): Swift eye movements during sleep.
Recall: To supply or reproduce memorized information with a minimum of external cues.
Recognition: An ability to correctly identify previously learned information.
Reflective processing: Thought that is active, effortful, and controlled.
Reflex: An innate, automatic response to a stimulus; for example, an eyeblink.
Relaxation response: The pattern of internal bodily changes that occurs at times of relaxation.
Reliability: The ability of a test to yield nearly the same score each time it is given to the same person.
Repression: Unconsciously pushing unwanted memories out of awareness.
Resistance: The inability or unwillingness of a patient in psychoanalysis to discuss certain ideas, desires, or experiences
Response: Any action, glandular activity, or other identifiable behavior.
Resting potential: The electrical charge of a neuron at rest.
Retrieval: The recovery of stored information from memory
Retrieval cue: Stimulus associated with a memory. Retrieval cues usually enhance memory.
Rote Learning: Memorization of facts or association
Scaffolding: The process of adjusting instruction so that it is responsive to a beginner’s behavior and supports the beginner’s efforts to understand a problem or gain a mental skill.
Schedule of reinforcement: A rule or plan for determining which responses will be reinforced.
Schemes: Piaget’s term for cognitive structures that develop as infants and young children learn to interpret the world and adapt to their environment
Secondary reinforcer: A learned reinforcer; often one that gains reins reinforcing properties by association with a primary reinforcer.
Self‑Actualization: A person’s desire to develop to his or her full potential
Self-concept: A person’s perception of his or her own personality traits.
Self-esteem: Regarding oneself as a worthwhile person; a positive evaluation of oneself.
Self-fulfilling prophecy: A prediction that prompts people to act in ways that make the prediction come true.
Self-reference: The practice of relating new information to prior life experience.
Semantic Memory: A part of long‑term memory that stores facts and general knowledge
Sensation: A sensory impression; also, the process of detecting physical energies with the sensory organs.